UNIFICATION OF GRAVITATION AND ELECTROMAGNETISM
by Jovan Djuric
Balkanska 28, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia, Yugoslavia
See also "MAGNETISM AS MANIFESTATION OF GRAVITATION" in PDF format
PACS : 04.50.+h or 03.50.-z
The paper presents the total and consistent unification of the grandiose works of Newton, Faraday and Maxwell within the symmetrical Maxwell equations by identifying the so far missing magnetic monopoles with the mass monopoles - masses, and identifying the magnetic field with the gravitational field with the suitable constant of proportionality . Further experiments are necessary to obtain its correct average value. The origin of the conventional large-scale magnetic fields of the celestial bodies, planets, Sun and stars is explained on the basis of the first moment of the mass distribution with respect to the center of gravity, which center is defined as the point at which the self-gravity is zero. The center of gravity and the center of mass never coincide, except in the case of the perfect symmetry, which never occurs in nature for the real celestial bodies. It is pointed out that the inappropriate choice of the center of mass for the coordinate origin for the planet Earth led to the inadequate International Gravity Formula with the so far inexplicable gravity anomalies. These gravity anomalies can be accounted for at least partially by the additional dipolar term in that Gravity Formula. The paper points out at many phenomena which fit naturally within this unified field theory, such as geomagnetic field reversal, disturbances and variations due to the influences of the Moon, Sun, all planets, continental drift, earthquakes, etc. The solar cycle and the sunspots can be easily accounted for by the gravitational pulls of the revolving planets, among which Jupiter predominates by far. Further research in many directions is necessary, including levitation by very strong magnetic fields particularly, whose results were reported rather recently. It is emphasized that the proper choice of the coordinate system for the planet Earth is of the paramount importance for further geophysical measurements, so that the instantaneous time varying vertical plumb lines and all measurements can be referred to that global coordinate system. It is pointed out that this unified gravito-electromagnetic field theory is purely mathematically valid for any velocity. In that respect, an experiment is described for the attempt to accelerate electrons above the speed of light, which appears to be possible on the basis of the described provisional model of the self-gravitationally stabilized electrical charge as derived from this unified field theory. This tentative model of the elementary electrical charge - electron shows that within this unified field theory all elementary particles, including neutrons, must possess the intrinsic magnetic dipole moments, i.e., the intrinsic first mass moments with respect to their centers of gravity within the unavoidable and inexorable gravitational field, THUS TOTALLY AND LOGICALLY ELIMINATING ANY NEED FOR THE ASSUMED AND PRESUMABLY "DETECTED" "SUB-ELEMENTARY" TRANSIENT ELECTRICALLY CHARGED PARTICLES, LIKE QUARKS, ETC, WHICH, ALTHOUGH "TRANSIENT", PRESUMABLY REVOLVE INSIDE THE "ELEMENTARY" PARTICLES, LIKE NEUTRONS ETC. TO CREATE THE MAGNETIC DIPOLE MOMENTS IN THE OBVIOUS VIOLATION OF LOGIC. This model is in the full harmony with the disapproval of the hypothesis of quarks by some outstanding scientists, like Heisenberg and others. The paper emphasizes that any theory of physics and particles, which neglects or omits the inevitable gravitational field, whose presence makes the space essentially anisotropic, is logically incomplete and consequently erroneous to a certain extent.
UNIFICATION OF GRAVITATION AND ELECTROMAGNETISM
The long established concept in the present-day physics of the four fundamental forces of nature without any apparent interconnections is logically untenable, since nature appears to act always as the unified whole. So the purpose of this paper is to abandon that concept resembling strangely to the absurd Aristotle's four elements and to present the unification of gravitation and electromagnetism within the single mathematical-geometrical structure of the symmetrical Maxwell equations consistent with all gravito-electromagnetic phenomena in nature, thus unifying the grandiose works of Newton, Faraday and Maxwell. It must be emphasized at the very beginning that the monopoles, dipoles and multipoles are strictly the mathematical-geometrical categories of the pure mind. They represent more or less approximately the real entities, such as an electron, etc. All theories of physics represent at best only the glimpses of the ultimate reality of nature. These theories should classify correctly all experimental facts from a specified region in accordance with some strict logical and / or mathematical rules. They should be useful hopefully for the prediction of some new phenomena and for the calculations of some practical problems. But unfortunately, they all must fail at some point. The ultimate truth of nature is unreachable.
Electromagnetic Field Equations
The classical Maxwell equations for the electromagnetic field in vacuum ( free space)
together with the Lorentz force acting upon a test point electric charge ( electric monopole) q ( of the mass m ) moving with the velocity in the EB field
represent the basis for understanding and properly classifying all electromagnetic phenomena in nature. The notation in the above equations is conventional in the MKS system of units as used in any modern textbook on electromagnetism. It must be emphasized that temperature does not figure explicitly in all these equations, but temperature can be and must be introduced appropriately in many physical situations as a parameter.
Gravito-electromagnetic Field Equations
The equation (2) is the differential form of the Faraday induction law. It is easy to show (see for example , pp. 160-162) that, in the general case of the test point electric charge moving with the velocity in the magnetic field , the integral form of the Faraday induction law gives for the induced electric field
Since the term is already present in the Lorentz force (5), the net additional induced electric field acting upon the moving test point electric charge is . It is clear that this equation (7) is identical to (2) when which is the fundamental hypothesis of the classical electromagnetic theory, i.e., the magnetic monopoles do not exist by definition within the classical electromagnetic field theory on the basis of the presumed experimental facts.
Let us consider the following symmetrical Maxwell equations in vacuum (free space)
together with the generalized force expression
, , (13)
, , . (14)
Note that in ( 9), ( 7 ), ( 6 ), ( 5 ) and in the first term of the force expression (12) is the single identical quantity in the derivation, while in the second term of (12) is another assumed quantity, which is assumed to be identical to the former one.
G is identified as the universal gravitational constant, is the mass density (per volume) , is the gravitational field, may be called the motional field, m is the test point mass (the mass monopole), and the three quantities n , and are the appropriate constants for the unit conversions, of which three constants only one can be chosen independently to fit the experimental facts. The equations (8) to (12) are also written in the form
The equations (15) to (19) are identical to the corresponding equations (8) to (12) subject to the identifying equations (13) and (14).
We assert and declare that the above equations (8) to (19) can properly and consistently summarize and classify all experimental and derived facts of the Newton classical gravitational theory and the classical electromagnetic theory with the proper choice of only the single constant . These equations represent and define the unified gravito-electromagnetic field, i.e., they represent the totally unified field theory of gravitation and electromagnetism. This unified field theory was proposed by this author in 1963  and earlier, but his various papers were not published so far. The so far missing magnetic monopoles are the masses in this theory.
It is emphasized that the quantity is not "rationalized" from the equation (8), i.e., (15) in order to conform with the historical form of the Newton law. Let
, , , (20)
where the volume delta function defines the point mass M located at the point whose position vector is . Also by assumption and .
Thus, the equations (8) and (9) become
, , (21)
whose solutions are by definition in fact (see Appendix )
, , (22)
i.e., from the mathematical point of view, the Newton-Coulomb law and the Biot-Savart law respectively. For the latter the condition is that . Introducing these expressions into the force equation (12) we obtain exactly after the exact cancellation of the term of force acting on q
This is the Newton law of force between the two point masses with the additional term, which is negligible for the planetary movements, since is much smaller than c , the speed of light. The same expression is also valid outside the constant spherically symmetrical mass distribution around with . The velocity dependence of the force (23) is useful in some physical situations, as in the case of the planet Mercury, etc. It must be mentioned here in connection with this formula (23), that due to the velocity dependence of this force (23), the problem of the interaction of more than two bodies is extremely complex and difficult to handle, just as the formally similar problem of the interaction of more than two electrically charged particles in the classical electromagnetic field theory.
Note that the force acting on q (electric test monopole ) is exactly zero in this case, regardless of whether moving or stationary. The strict monopolar gravitational, i.e., magnetic (by definition (13)) field cannot be detected by the electric monopoles - electric point charges, or, otherwise, the Faraday induction law breaks down, although due to the mass property each of those electric monopoles experiences the force given by (23), which may be rather weak depending on masses. This explains the zero results in the extensive but so far futile search for the magnetic monopoles. This unified field theory is based actually on the hypothesis, which identifies the so far missing magnetic monopoles with the masses.
The analysis and the criticism of the modified Newton law expression (23) are beyond the scope of this brief paper, but it should be pointed out that this force (23) is purely mathematically valid for any velocity, even for v = c and v > c . The physical consequence of this mathematical fact must be considered carefully, whether this may be useful and applicable or not. Of course, c is the speed of light in the free space. It is obvious from (23) that this modified Newton force (23) is strictly attractive for v < c , but it can become repulsive for v > c, which is very interesting. Some astrophysical observations of the expanding universe and the distant galaxies, which appear to be moving away from each other with the velocities exceeding c, appear to agree qualitatively with this modified Newton law (23), but further research is necessary. The mutual recession of the galaxies from each other, with a recessional velocity proportional to their distance from one another apparently exceeding the speed of light c, appears to be only the jargon to conceal the existence of the velocities between the physical entities - galaxies - moving with respect to each other with the velocities exceeding the speed of light c in contravention to the relativity theories.
Origin of Conventional Large - scale Magnetic Fields of Celestial Bodies
This unified gravito-electromagnetic field theory offers the consistent explanation of the origin and the variations of the conventional large-scale magnetic fields of massive celestial bodies, such as planets, Sun and stars. Let , , and be the given constant (time invariant ) mass distribution. Also by assumption and . The general solution of (8) , i.e., (15) is in such a case
where the scalar potential U is
Now the potential U is developed in the Taylor series about the coordinate origin which is defined to coincide with the center of gravity of the observed mass distribution, i.e., the point where the self gravity is zero. The center of mass was used so far in geophysics, but inappropriately, since the dipole term is zero in such a case by definition. That resulted in the inadequate International Gravity Formula for the planet Earth with the so far inexplicable gravity anomalies, see for example . These two centers of gravity and of mass never coincide for the real celestial bodies, except for the perfectly symmetrical ones never occurring in nature. So
where only two non-zero terms are retained. Of course, the observation point is outside that mass. is the total mass, while
is the first moment of the observed mass distribution, where by definition is the position vector of the center of mass of that mass distribution with respect to the center of gravity, which is the coordinate origin by assumption and choice. That first moment is never zero for any real celestial body, including the Earth. The second dipolar term ( dipolar by definition without any need for " positive " and " negative" masses or monopoles) is missed in the International Gravity Formula for the planet Earth, since the Taylor development was about the center of mass, so that two different flattenings must be used with that formula, for the northern hemisphere, and for the southern hemisphere (see , p.79).This fact indicates unmistakably the presence of the dipolar term which must be present in the correct Earth's gravity formula. Of course, the centrifugal acceleration must be included in it. The Coriolis acceleration applies for the moving mass point. Using (26) for U, the equation (24) gives for the free space outside the mass distribution
The divergence of this expression is by definition
Note that the dipolar term in (28) has zero divergence by definition. Introducing (29) into (9), and since , and , we obtain
whose solution is by definition the familiar mathematical form of the Biot-Savart law ( cf. Appendix )
with . Using (28) and (31) , the force expression (12) gives
in the first term of this force expression (32) is recognized as the conventional large-scale magnetic field of the Earth (or any other observed celestial body). The local anomalies of the conventional Earth's magnetic field (or the celestial body) can be accounted for by introducing the appropriate electric current and / or ferromagnetic distributions as is done in the classical electromagnetic theory, which is totally and obviously embraced by this unified field theory. Of course, the better approximation for (33) can be obtained by using additional terms in the Taylor series for U, equation (26). If the motion of the electric point charge is considered, such as the electron, then the force term in (32) which is multiplied by the mass m is quite negligible as it is well known. For the closed loop through which the steady electric current is flowing, the calculation of the torque is straightforward by using the first term in (32), while the second term, gravitational in the conventional sense, is properly balanced by the appropriate hinges, i.e., axes and bearings in the usual way. The presence of centrifugal and Coriolis accelerations is inconsequential for that. The conventional large-scale Earth's magnetic field as the first approximation is written in the form ( see for example  )
where is the conventional Earth's magnetic dipole moment. Equating (33) and (34) yields
The numerical values in the MKS system of units for the planet Earth are:
, , ,
, so that the equation (35 ) yields
Both and are unknown. The
additional experimental fact is necessary. Data from the recently
reported levitations of the organic matters by the conventional
magnetic fields are not available to this author. The available
gravity data are inadequate to obtain or , since those data are referred to the International Gravity
Formula for the planet Earth, which is inadequate. That Gravity Formula includes, beside the centrifugal term
and a fitting term, only the first
gravity term as the consequence of the inappropriate
choice of the center of mass as the coordinate origin, with
respect to which the first moment of the mass distribution is
zero by definition. It is well known that there is the
uncertainty of the order of 10mGals = 10-4 m/s2
(1Gal = 1cm/s2) about the reference value of the
gravity (the difference between the International Gravity Formula
in  ( cf. also  ) and the Bowie gravity
formula Number 2 for instance, etc.). The observed gravitational
anomalies reduced to the sea level are also of the order of
10mGals. Consequently, those data are uncertain for the
evaluation of i.e., , and even less as the vectors with their directions. With
the assumed value of the order of 10 m, the dipolar
term in the gravity formula (i.e., the expression (28) divided by
) may contribute up to
3x10-5 m/s2 = 3mGals at the sea level
depending on the location. It is too optimistic to expect that
the dipolar term may resolve all observed gravitational
anomalies, but its inclusion in the gravity formula is essential
together with the center of gravity for the coordinate origin of
the unique global coordinate system to which all gravity data are
to be referred . Anyway, if the dipolar term is to contribute
about 10mGals , then should be of the order of 33m with in MKS units from (36).
The value of is certainly different for different materials, and only the average value of is present in all equations of this unified
field theory, when the problems of the large celestial bodies are
considered. The direct measurements by the
applications of the conventional magnetic fields may be difficult
and very much masked by the paramagnetic and/or diamagnetic
effects and also by the ferromagnetic effects for the
ferromagnetic materials. It is clear from the second definition
expression in (14) that is associated with the permeability, and its value
for all materials except the ferromagnetic materials is estimated
to be around 1 in MKS units, since its average value for the
planet Earth is probably around 1 in MKS units on the basis of
the Earth's gravity anomalies, but all these values must be
determined experimentally in the further research. All these measurements are
obviously closely connected with the experiments of levitation of various
objects by the application of some very strong conventional magnetic fields
produced by electric currents as reported in 1997. by the University of
Nottingham, England which results are not available to this author.
In this connection, the Eotvos effect of the weak dependence of the pendulum period on the material of which that pendulum is made, can be explained by the difference of the value of for the different materials with the appropriate model using the generalized force expression (12), i.e., (19) ( internal electric charges must be taken into account), and which must include the proper origin of the local gravito-magnetic field with the proper distributions of the various materials at that locality. Also, since the value of is different for the different materials, it should be possible to create a model in association with the generalized force expression (12), i.e., (19) together with the modified Newton law (23) and the local gravito-magnetic field to account for the apparently observed and reported since 1980's substance-dependent non-Newtonian forces and other gravitational anomalies, but more research is necessary. Anyway, this unified field theory eliminates any need to add to the absurd four fundamental forces of nature an additional fifth one as some researchers suggested in order to account for those observed non-Newtonian forces.
The system of the symmetrical Maxwell equations (8) to (11), i.e., (15) to (18) with the generalized force expression (12), i.e., (19), subject to the equations (13) and (14), offers the simple and absolutely consistent way to summarize and classify all experimental gravito-electromagnetic phenomena in nature, thus unifying in the strictest possible way the grandiose works of Newton, Faraday and Maxwell. No inconsistencies or contradictions whatsoever have been found by this author subject to the definitions as stated in Appendix. This unified gravito-electromagnetic field theory could be easily reconciled with the special theory of relativity, but this theory is much wider and includes gravitation. However, although some results from the general theory of relativity can be obtained from this unified field theory, nevertheless, this unified field theory and the general theory of relativity exclude each other . Namely, this unified field theory admits only gh, i.e., BE, i.e., gravito-electromagnetic waves, while the general theory of relativity predicted the existence of the gravitational waves which have not been found so far in spite of the extensive search during the major portion of this 20th century which is about to end shortly. Moreover, as stated earlier in this paper, this unified gravito-electromagnetic field theory is mathematically valid for the velocities greater than c , and it admits such velocities formally if they exist, while the relativity theories, both special and general, postulate the speed of light c as the limiting velocity which cannot be exceeded, and they are not valid and applicable for the velocities exceeding c by definition. Only further research must resolve this puzzling issue whether the speed of light is the limiting velocity or not. There is no logical reason whatsoever that only the velocities, of all other physical quantities, must be limited to some particular limiting value, so no theory of physics should be formally limited to some particular value for the velocities , although there may be even some very serious physical problems to approach and/or exceed the speed of light c . As mentioned earlier in this paper, some astrophysical observations of the expanding universe appear to notice the velocities greater than c , but more research is necessary. The recently reported results of the Boomerang Project (see NATURE, April 2000 and BBC Internet Site, April 26, 2000) disproved the prediction of the general theory of relativity that light - bunch of electromagnetic waves - is bent by the gravitational field, but that finding is in full conformity with this unified field theory.
This unified field theory shows that the search for the magnetic monopoles must have been in vain, since, as shown in this paper (paragraph Newton Field), the pure monopolar magnetic, i.e., gravitational field does not exert any force upon the test electric monopoles, regardless of whether the test electric monopoles are moving or stationary. The extensive search for the magnetic monopoles was futile so far, leading to many statements in the literature and the textbooks that the magnetic monopoles do not exist at all in nature, which is wrong apparently from the point of view of this theory. Since the numerical value of according to the equation (8) is quite small in the MKS system of units, it is clear that its influence is important only in the cases of the very large mass distributions, such as the celestial bodies.
The original contribution of this unified field theory is the explanation of the origin and the variations of the conventional large-scale magnetic fields of the massive celestial bodies, planets, Sun and stars on the basis of the first moment of the mass distribution with respect to the center of gravity, i.e., , where is the position vector of the center of mass with respect to the center of gravity of the observed celestial body with the inexorable variations due to the gravitational interactions upon each other, when a number of the celestial bodies are observed. Thus, in the case of the planet Earth, it follows from this unified field theory that the conventional large-scale Earth's magnetic field must be influenced by Moon, Sun and other planets. Daily, monthly, seasonal and other variations of the conventional Earth's magnetic field were observed and measured long time ago but hardly understood and difficult to account for within the dynamo theory, except through the gravitational variations of the vertical plumb lines, see  and also .
The wandering of the Earth's magnetic poles must be connected with the continental drift on the basis of this unified field theory. That correlation, as well as the correlation between the conventional Earth's magnetic field disturbances and the earthquakes were proposed in the literature some time ago. These correlations are the natural consequences of this unified field theory.
The oscillation of the center of mass with respect to the center of gravity of the observed celestial body offers the straightforward explanation for the disturbances and the reversal of the conventional large-scale magnetic field of the observed body. The disturbances and the possible reversal depend on the internal state condition of, and the external influences-forces upon the observed celestial body. The disturbances and the reversals of the conventional large-scale magnetic fields of various celestial bodies are observed, measured and reported with widely different periods, but hardly understood so far.
The conventional large-scale solar magnetic dipole was observed almost perpendicular to the axis of the rotation of the Sun (see ), which is impossible to comprehend within the assumed dynamo theory of the origin of that field. But from the point of view of this unified field theory, the center of gravity and the center of mass of the Sun are approximately in the ecliptic plane and subject to the gravitational pulls by the revolving planets, among which Jupiter predominates by far. The combined action of the planets stretch the Sun creating the observed solar first mass moment, i.e., the solar magnetic dipole moment, which depends obviously on the movements of the planets ( compare the Equation (35) above ),. This provides the natural straightforward model for the explanation of the solar cycle and the sunspots, with the period of the solar cycle of about 11 years determined to a large extent by the period of the revolution of Jupiter of 11.86 years, although the influences of the other planets cannot be neglected.. The observed Sun's conventional magnetic field in the vicinity of the planet Earth of 5x10-9 Teslas (see , p. 503 ) corresponds to the distance between the Sun's center of gravity and the Sun's center of mass of 70 km, if n2 for the Sun is equal to 1 in the MKS units. This value appears reasonable compared to the Sun's diameter of 1.39x106 km. The Sun's center of gravity is the point from which the Sun attracts the planets by its gravity, while the Sun's center of mass is the point of the gravitational attractions of the Sun by the planets.
This unified gravito-electromagnetic field theory offers the possibility to model the electric charge as the spinning mass gravitationally stabilized with the natural possibility for the sign reversal of that electric charge model when subjected to the appropriate external influences-forces. Such a model must take into account the apparent variation of the electrical charge with the velocity, particularly when the velocity approaches the speed of light c, at which speed the electrical charge becomes zero apparently.
Also, this unified gravito-electromagnetic field theory offers the definite explanations of the oldest known phenomenon of the triboelectricity and of the phenomenon of lightnings. In both these phenomena, the movements of the initially electrically uncharged masses are essential to give rise to the electric fields necessary for the separations of the mobile but loosely bound electrical charges. This is in full agreement with the equation (9) of the fundamental symmetrical Maxwell equations, which mathematically states that the moving masses create the electric field. The conventional explanations of these two phenomena utilize the concepts of the work functions and the contact potentials, but the need for the relative movements of the different materials remains obscure and not strictly defined.
It must be emphasized again here that temperature is not present explicitly in the equations of this unified field theory, but temperature can be and must be introduced as a parameter in many physical situations in the same way as in the classical electromagnetic field theory and the Newton gravitational field theory
More research is necessary in many directions opened up by this unified gravito-electromagnetic field theory, including levitation of various objects by the application of the very strong conventional magnetic fields as reported by the University of Nottingham, England in 1997, which results appear to agree perfectly with this unified field theory, although this author was unable so far to obtain the results of those experiments.
EXPERIMENTS TO ACCELERATE CHARGED PARTICLES ABOVE THE SPEED OF LIGHT
The theoretical reasonings for the experiments proposed by this author to accelerate the charged particles above the speed of light are clarified and added here on May 29, 2000 for the world community, since this author was unable to obtain support for such experiments. These theoretical conclusions and reasonings can be obtained immediately from this unified field theory by any attentive and imaginative reader. Namely, it is obvious from this unified field theory of gravitation and electromagnetism (see especially the section in this paper entitled Origin of Conventional Large-scale Magnetic Fields of Celestial Bodies), that the first mass moment of the observed mass distribution, calculated with respect to the center of self-gravity of that mass distribution and multiplied by the appropriate constant subject to the experimental determination of n2 and the proper unit conversion, is nothing else but the conventional magnetic dipole moment. The spinning of the magnetic dipole moment produces the electrical charge as Herbert Jehle (Phys. Rev. D 3, 306, 1971; Phys. Rev. D 6, 441, 1972; Phys. Rev. D 11, 2147, 1975) proposed and analyzed with the spinning in all directions averaged over the sphere. The basic tentative model of the electrically charged particle, which is obviously suggested from the macroscopic domain by this unified field theory and carried over consistently into the microscopic domain by this author as the working hypothetical axial structure, is an ultra miniature gyroscope of mass, almost a point mass, to call it an atogyro by using the prefix ato (10-18), the smallest of all such prefixes. Of course, mass is the a priori understood and accepted category of the pure mind, just like length and time in classical physics. That tiny mass - atogyro is inevitably in the gravitational field of the Earth, and perhaps other fields. It is also subject to its own gravitational field. As the consequence of the present external gravitational field, that tiny mass must obtain the non-zero first mass moment, since only in the totally free space, free of any external field whatsoever, that tiny mass assumes the perfect spherical shape being only subject to its own totally spherically symmetrical Newton field. That tiny mass - atogyro spins tentatively in one direction, or perhaps even more elaborately as Jehle proposed and analyzed, and is quantized and self-gravitationally stabilized, but it may perform various precessional and other movements subject to some additional fields in accordance with the generalized force Equation (12) of this paper. Its electrical charge is the direct product of its angular velocity and its first mass moment, i.e. magnetic dipole moment as Jehle showed. That electrical charge becomes zero when the spinning stops, or when its first mass moment becomes zero, which occurs whenever that atogyro finds itself in the space free of any gravitational, i.e., magnetic field. Namely, in the totally free space and only under the self-gravitational Newton field, the center of mass and the center of self-gravity of the atogyro must coincide, logically and in view of the experimental evidence, but its spinning continues in accordance with the principle of the conservation of energy and angular momentum. The atogyro is an electrical charge only in the presence of a gravitational, i.e., magnetic field, and it can change its sign when the total applied gravitational, i.e., magnetic field is reversed. It is concluded from the generalized force Equation (12), that the applied electric field cannot change directly the relative positions of the center of mass and the center of self-gravity, i.e., its electrical charge property and its sign, but it can produce or induce the precessional and other movements of that atogyro. This is very briefly the tentative working model of the electrical charge within this theory as described qualitatively, whose further theoretical and quantitative developments can proceed only after some necessary experiments.
This tentative model of the elementary electrical charge - electron shows that within this unified field theory all elementary particles, including neutrons, must possess the intrinsic magnetic dipole moments, i.e., the intrinsic first mass moments with respect to their centers of self-gravity within the unavoidable and inexorable gravitational field, THUS TOTALLY AND LOGICALLY ELIMINATING ANY NEED FOR THE ASSUMED AND PRESUMABLY "DETECTED" "SUB-ELEMENTARY" TRANSIENT ELECTRICALLY CHARGED PARTICLES, LIKE QUARKS, ETC., WHICH, ALTHOUGH "TRANSIENT", PRESUMABLY REVOLVE INSIDE THE ELEMENTARY PARTICLES, LIKE NEUTRONS, ETC. TO CREATE THE OBSERVED MAGNETIC DIPOLE MOMENTS (see  p.381) IN THE OBVIOUS VIOLATION OF LOGIC. This model is in the full harmony with the disapproval of the hypothesis of quarks by some outstanding scientists, like Heisenberg and others, see , p.609. It is emphasized here that any theory of physics and particles, which neglects or omits the inevitable gravitational field, whose presence makes the space essentially anisotropic, is logically incomplete and consequently erroneous to a certain extent.
This atogyro model of the electrical charge can easily explain the occurrence of the so-called "holes" - the positive electrical charge carriers - present only inside p-type semiconductors and some common metals like beryllium, cadmium and zinc, with the appropriate model of the gravitational influence of the nuclei of the atoms. This model of the electrically charged particle can be used to explain the presumed "dual" nature of light apparently manifested by the photo-electric effect without resorting to the concept of the duality of the nature of light which was proposed by this author in Reference . This model of the electrical charge confirms the belief of the well-known German mathematician and philosopher of science Hugo Dingler as mentioned in this author's letter dated February 8, 2000, POPPER VERSUS EINSTEIN, enclosed on this Internet site as Addenda.
This model of the electrical charge can explain why the attempts so far to accelerate the charged particles above the speed of light were unsuccessful. Namely, the acceleration attempts were made with the Cockcroft-Walton and Van de Graaff accelerators of few MeV at most, initially in the vertical direction, which is probably the preferred direction, and afterwards with much greater energies by the cyclotrons and the synchrotrons exclusively in the horizontal direction, which is the natural direction for those accelerators, but definitely inappropriate from the point of view of this unified field theory. All such attempts were made with the utter disregard of the gravitational effects upon the accelerating charged particles, which effects were assumed to be of no consequence whatsoever, which is erroneous. This theory shows that in view of the modified Newton law, Equation (23), and the generalized force, Equation (12), the presence of the anti-gravitational term, second term in (23), i.e. the antigravity, overcomes the gravity during the acceleration when the movement of the accelerating charged particle is in the horizontal direction and when the velocity of that accelerating charged particle approaches the speed of light. This, in view of the above described model of the electrical charge, causes the electrical charge of that particle to become zero, since its first moment becomes zero due to the absence of the external applied gravitational field ( gravity and anti-gravity in the Equation (23) canceling each other ), or even worse, to change its sign, thus making the further acceleration impossible. This is the explanation of the failure to exceed the speed of light, which is derived from this theory. The electrical charge apparently becomes zero when its velocity becomes equal to the sped of light in certain circumstances evidently. The relativists saw in such unsuccessful attempts to exceed the speed of light the proof that the mass of the accelerating charged particle becomes infinite when the speed of light is reached, which is physically obviously impossible and logically absurd, although the correct conclusion is obtained that further acceleration is impossible, which is the same conclusion as obtained by this unified field theory. But the atogyro model of the electrical charge of this unified field theory is both physically and logically quite obviously possible, while the infinity of mass, to repeat once more, is physically obviously impossible and logically absurd. Moreover, the infinity of mass when v = c leaves no way out from that impasse, no hope whatsoever, only the absolute absurdity for ever and ever. However, this unified field theory offers the possibility to approach this problem of the acceleration of the charged particle above the speed of light differently, by avoiding the points in space and time where the electrical charge, i.e. the first mass moment of the accelerating atogyro becomes zero, or even worse, reverses its sign, by using the appropriately chosen and experimentally found direction in space and by applying the additional conventional magnetic field in the appropriate direction at the right moment in time, and even perhaps by switching off and / or reversing perhaps the applied accelerating electric field at the right moment in time, i.e., by experimentations to find the way to exceed the speed of light by the accelerating charged particle. This is the way out from this impasse as offered by this unified field theory. These experiments may lead to the further progress of science with the hope as indicated by this unified field theory. But the experiments to accelerate the charged particles by building more and more powerful accelerators represent the utter absurdity of the waste of time and money, if the infinity of mass when v = c is accepted as the absolute truth - law, which this unified field theory rejects. This author believes that the experiments should continue by all means as outlined above.
Such acceleration projects need the C-W and / or VdG accelerator of few MV, a custom built vacuum electron tube of about 0.1 m in diameter of about 2 - 3 m in length with the movable and switchable electromagnet probably concentric with that tube, and the time counter with the electron beam sensors capable of response and discrimination of 1 nanosecond or better. The tube should be mounted inside the appropriate gimbals, so that it can be moved to any direction in space inside a suitable laboratory. This author believes and his calculations show that it is possible with such basic equipments to find experimentally the direction of that tube and the moments of switchings in time, so to propel the electrons above the speed of light. The estimated cost of such a project amounts to few millions of US dollars, or less, if some basic equipments are already available. This cost is small compared to many billions of US dollars already spent so far on the various acceleration projects without exceeding the speed of light.
This author invites all scientific institutions of the world to consider and support the experiments outlined above. These experiments offer hope for the break-through, while the so far funded acceleration projects led hopelessly to the impasse mentioned above, without exceeding the speed of light, which must have been expected if the infinity of mass when v = c is believed to be the absolute law of nature, which this unified field theory rejects to repeat once more, and this theory shows that the impasse was due because the gravitational effects on the accelerating charged particles were totally neglected. Whatever results are obtained in the experiments proposed on the basis of this unified field theory, those results will probably enrich the scientific knowledge of the world community.
The expressions in (22) must be defined as the solutions of the respective equations in (21), which involve the generalized volume delta function. These expressions are the Green functions, i.e., the kernels of the integral forms of the Newton-Coulomb law and the Biot-Savart law respectively from the mathematical point of view. These definitions must be accepted to conform with the mentioned laws. The first expression in (22) is the polar vector. It is mathematically the Newton-Coulomb law for the point mass or charge. Its divergence is zero everywhere in the space except at the singular point. That definition is consistent. The second expression in (22) is the axial vector, i.e., the antisymmetric tensor. Once more, it must be defined as the solution of the second equation in (21). Mathematically, it is the kernel of the Biot-Savart law in the integral form and also of Ampere's law of force between the two current carrying line elements. The curl of that second expression in (22) does not yield zero anywhere in the space as it should according to the second equation in (21). This is an obvious mathematical difficulty, which is originated from the Biot-Savart law and the Ampere law in which the principle of equality of action and reaction is violated in the differential domain, and both laws are mathematically inadequate. Anybody who does not accept this second definition must take the task to find a new and more acceptable formula to substitute for the Biot-Savart law and the Ampere law in their present forms with the consequential changes of the Lorentz force expression, etc. Judging from the enormous efforts and controversies for about two decades at the beginning of the 19th century, which resulted in the now accepted forms of the Ampere law and the Biot-Savart law, that task is almost certainly mission impossible. The form of the Biot-Savart law was suggested by Laplace himself to his disciples Biot and Savart (and to Ampere probably, although Ampere claimed that his law was experimental) and is therefore often referred to in the literature as the Laplace law. If that second definition is rejected together with this unified field theory without finding a new formula as outlined above as a new law to substitute for the actual Biot-Savart law and other consequential formulas, then gravitation and magnetism will remain forever doomed to be side by side without any interconnection, ridiculously referred to as the first and the second force of nature, although a weak conventional magnetic field and a weak gravitational field are present together and measured everywhere in the free interplanetary space! And, further, the large-scale conventional magnetic fields of the celestial bodies, of which many with the extremely high temperatures both on their surfaces and within, will have to be forever "explained by assuming that they are due to an actual flow of electric current of high amperage" (quotation from a textbook) by some assumed dynamo action miraculously creating order - magnetic fields - from disorder - heat - in violation of the fundamental principle of the conservation of energy ! And the observed magnetic dipole moments of the electrically uncharged (neutral) "elementary" particles, such as neutrons, will have to be "explained" by the "sub-elementary" revolving electrically charged "sub-particles", like quarks etc. which is logically absurd. And, further, the observed movement of the galaxies from each other with velocities exceeding the speed of light c, will forever be referred to as the recession of the galaxies with one constant defined as the antigravity, rather than accepting the repulsion, i.e., the antigravity, which is contained in the modified Newton law (23) of this unified gravito-electromagnetic field theory when the velocities exceed the speed of light c ! And , further, the apparently observed substance-dependent non-Newtonian force will have to be explained by postulating the existence of "the fifth force" and even " the sixth force", and what not, rather than one single set of the symmetrical Maxwell equations of this unified gravito-electromagnetic field with some definitions and the experimentally determined constants for all materials and the appropriate models for the problems under considerations! And the enormous data from geophysics, in particular from geomagnetism and inexplicable gravity anomalies and from solar and stellar magnetism suggest strongly and manifestly at the identity of gravity and magnetism, or more precisely, magnetism is a specific manifestation of gravitation. Recently reported levitation results and prospecting for oil and other non-ferromagnetic materials by the measurements of the geomagnetic field [sic] as well as the gravitational field show the unmistakable interconnections between these two fields. All those data fit very well within this proposed unified field theory with the second expression in (22) accepted as the defined solution of the second equation in (21). The mentioned mathematical difficulty, which originates from the mathematical inadequacy in the differential domain of both the Biot-Savart law and the Ampere law, shows only the inadequacy of mathematics as the extremely precise but certainly limited language to properly describe nature and its phenomena. Sommerfeld  pointed out another mathematical difficulty in the classical electromagnetic field theory. It can be also argued that the second expression in (22) is the approximate solution of the second equation in (21), so that the conclusions of this unified field theory are approximate, if not exact. But the total rejection of all conclusions of this unified field theory as encountered so far for over three decades without giving any reason is certainly absurd and manifests only the antiscientific prejudiced closed minds of the rejectors-editors, who ignored the submitted papers of this author often without returning the submitted manuscripts.
Addenda on April 14, 2000
My following three letters, which were e-mailed to the indicated institutions and individuals on indicated dates, are added here for the information of the reader. No response was received on any kind to those three letters so far.
Subject: Open Letter to Dr. John Maddox, retired
former Editor of NATURE
Date: Sun, 31 Oct 1999 18:56:47 +0100
From: Jovan Djuric <email@example.com>
CC: Alun Anderson <firstname.lastname@example.org>, "Roger Wäppling Editor" <email@example.com>, Scientific American Editors <firstname.lastname@example.org>,"Fred Hehl, co-Editor, Annalen der Physik" hehl@IAS.EDU, Journal of Physics A <email@example.com>,"Physics and Astronomy Department, UNM" <firstname.lastname@example.org>, Nature Editors <email@example.com>
Dear Dr. Maddox:
I listened with great interest to the feature program AGENDA on the British Broadcasting Corporation at 07:30 GMT (UTC), Sunday, October 31, 1999, in which you took part. The discussion was about what there is still to be discovered in science. Your views on that subject are expressed in your recently published book on that subject, which book I had no opportunity so far to read. I concur with your opinion which you expressed during the said BBC program that the obvious and total incompatibility of the quantum theory and the general theory of relativity is an obvious problem which should be resolved. It appears that that problem is unresolvable, and it appears that the quantum theory or the general theory of relativity must be discarded as the only logically possible solution. I believe on the basis of my unified field theory of gravitation and electromagnetism that the latter should be discarded, since after the extensive and rather expensive search for the predicted (!?) gravitational waves during the major portion of this century, no trace of such gravitational waves was ever detected.
I must point out that the discussion during the said BBC program never touched an obviously still unresolved scientific problem which is the relationship between gravitation and electromagnetism, i.e., the unified field theory. That problem is the greatest unresolved problem in physics. The gravitational fields and the electromagnetic fields have been observed macroscopically for centuries, but it is strange to realize that no relationship between those fields has ever been proposed or discovered, except for my unified field theory of gravitation and electromagnetism which has been suppressed from publication for over 3 (three) decades by all scientific journals to which submitted without any critical opinions, i.e., dogmatically, including NATURE during your editorship, and again exactly a year ago. So I put on the Internet Site
my brief paper entitled UNIFICATION OF GRAVITATION AND ELECTROMAGNETISM, and that paper is still on that Internet Site. My theory contradicts obviously the general theory of relativity, as well as the special theory of relativity, although my unified field theory could be reconciled with the special theory of relativity, but never with the general theory of relativity. I am writing this letter to you, since I hope that the search for truth, scientific as well as any other truth, is as dear to you as it is to me. I must tell you that the suppression of my theory from publication denied me the opportunity so far to secure financial support for the experiments which should corroborate my theory. I stayed in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA (this is my domicile) for 5 (five) weeks during the (last) summer of 1999, and I tried to obtain support for an experiment to accelerate electrons above the speed of light, which is possible on the basis of my theory, in which mass does not vary with the velocity, but the electrical charge, being a definite structure, does vary with the velocity and even becomes zero at the speed of light. But untold millions of dollars are still spent on the search for the predicted (!?) gravitational waves and the missing magnetic monopoles, which are mass monopoles in my theory, but no funds are available to try to achieve what is dogmatically believed to be impossible! And the learned professors of the past such as William Thompson - Lord Kelvin proved that the objects heavier than air cannot ever fly, but the Wright brothers did not listen and did it anyway! Since it is indeed the human destiny to reach the unreachable stars! My theory may be even wrong, but it certainly shows the way to truth!
I hope and trust that the BBC will disclose the content of this letter to its audience worldwide during the next feature program AGENDA, and other suitable programs, such as Discovery, Science in Action, etc. At the moment that this letter is being written, the BBC is broadcasting the report from the BBC correspondent in Belgrade, Ms. Jackie Rowland, reporting about the surrealistic political situation in Belgrade, but I had to live and survive for over 3 decades with the surreality in the present surrealistic scientific world community. Thank you very much for your attention to this letter.
Subject: Follow-up to my Open letter to Dr. John
Date: Wed, 01 Dec 1999 18:46:57 +0100
From: Jovan Djuric <firstname.lastname@example.org>
To: Graham Hill and Christopher Gunness <email@example.com>
CC: Alun Anderson <firstname.lastname@example.org>, "Roger Wäppling, Editor" <email@example.com>,
Scientific American Editors <firstname.lastname@example.org>, Nature Editors <email@example.com>,
Journal of Physics A firstname.lastname@example.org, "Fred Hehl, co-Editor, Annalen der Physik" <hehl@IAS.EDU>,
Physics Department UNM <email@example.com>, "Professor Richard H. Williams, UNM" <firstname.lastname@example.org>,
Gary Vaughn and John McGuffin <GVaughn@worldnet.att.net>, Fiona Pattison <email@example.com>
Following my Open letter to Dr. John Maddox, retired former Editor of NATURE of October 31, 1999, I believe that some explanations are in order, which were implied in my original letter.
First, it must be clearly stated that many BBC programs, besides being very informative and entertaining, are being broadcasted in the public interest on behalf of the entire humanity, for which BBC enjoys a special status in the United Kingdom and throughout the world. I believe that my two letters are also in the public interest. Also, the scientific journals of the world are published undoubtedly in the public interest in search for truth. But it appears to me that some scientific journals have failed in the case of my theoretical papers dogmatically suppressing the publication of my theory, since my theory contradicts obviously the relativity theories. It must be pointed out that "it (the relativity theory) is readily demolished by the application of a little reason" to quote verbatim Dr. L. Essen, Fellow of the Royal Society in his Friday Evening Discourse on 26th November, 1971 before the Royal Institution of Great Britain, The Proceedings of the Royal Institution of Great Britain, Volume 45, pp. 141-160, 1972, who also stated there: "It is often thought that inconsistent or useless theories die a natural death as they are replaced by more useful ones, but there is little evidence of this happening in the case of the relativity theory." I believe that the relativity theories should be abandoned as counterproductive as I stated in my letter of October 31, 1999. Here I want to disclose how the publication of my theory was prevented during the past year in the form of my brief paper UNIFICATION OF GRAVITATION AND ELECTROMAGNETISM as presented on the Internet Site
I believe that this disclosure is very much in the public interest and closely connected with the issues discussed in the BBC program AGENDA on Sunday, October 31, 1999. The dogmatic prevention of the publication of new ideas impedes the progress of science.
Namely, the hard copy of a somewhat shorter version of the above paper was air-mailed on September 14, 1998 to the Editor of NATURE after the careful examination of the NATURE publication policy as stated on the NATURE Internet Site. I expected to receive the critical opinion of my theory at least if it is not published. On December 10, 1998 I received the envelope with the hard copy of my paper obviously untouched and unread with the NATURE Card attached to it with the date 30 NOV 1998 and the printed message: "The Editor thanks you for your communication but regrets that he is unable to publish it. He regrets that he cannot enter into further correspondence on this matter." The Editor of NATURE Dr. Phillip Campbell violated his own proclaimed publication policy and acted against the public interest in the search for truth! Then I decided to put my paper as a presentation on the Internet Site as stated above in order to expedite the transfer electronically. It was offered electronically early in January 1999 to the New Scientist, which politely informed me that the New Scientist does not publish the original research papers and suggested other journals. The Editors of the Scientific American early in January 1999 refused my paper stating that they publish only the invited review papers. On January 13, 1999 my paper was electronically submitted to the Physica Scripta. After a great deal of lost time, during which the Editor's Office in Stockholm and its Publishing Office in Bristol, UK, Ms. Fiona Pattison, Journal Controller exhibited probable problems with the obsolete computer hardware and/or software, problems with downloading as Ms. Fiona Pattison stated, so I had to retype my manuscript to make it more readily available to them. I received on May 4, 1999 the hard copy (?!) of the rejection letter by Dr Waeppling, Executive Editor dated March 30, 1999 with the following Report of the referee dated March 23, 1999: "This paper is of highly speculative nature, clearly beyond the scope of a respected journal like Physica Scripta. I cannot recommend its publication." This is clearly a dogmatic rejection showing only the intolerance to the new ideas. I felt cheated of time of almost 4 months and extra expenses which I spent to make my paper available to them upon their request, since I received no opinion whatsoever, and I asked that my extra expenses be reimbursed by the Physica Scripta Office, which Dr. Waeppling refused. Besides the intolerance to the new ideas, the Editorial Office of the Physica Scripta showed the incompetence in the electronic handling of the manuscript and wasted time and money with hard copies. Then my paper was electronically submitted on May 31, 1999 to the Journal of Physics A which rejected it fairly promptly on June 20, 1999 suggesting that my paper be submitted to some pedagogical journal (sic!) without a single word of comments about my theory. This attitude is certainly not in the public interest of the search for truth. On October 10, my paper was offered electronically to Professor Friedrich Hehl, co-editor, Annalen der Physik, and, I understand, it is under review at this moment with some time lost, since Professor Hehl is at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, away from his regular position at the University of Koeln.
I must state at the end of this letter that my theory is not speculative in the least, as anybody can see and read it from the stated Internet Site. My theory represents the consistent synthesis spanning 3 (three) centuries of the grandiose works of Newton, Faraday and Maxwell, the three founders of modern physics with the strict adherence to the well-proven Newtonian concepts-foundations. All experimental facts from geophysics, geomagnetism and our planetary system fit very well within this proposed theory like an enormous jigsaw puzzle, but there is a problem which is clearly stated and discussed. I sincerely believe that my theoretical approach is of interest for the further progress of the scientific thought and physics. I need support to perform some experiments, in particular to try to accelerate the electrons above the speed of light, which, I believe, is possible. The distant galaxies are observed to be moving away from each other with the velocities exceeding the speed of light c in contravention to the dogmatic belief that the speed of light c is the limiting velocity which cannot be exceeded. But dogmatism is the gravest, most dangerous enemy of the humanity in general, and of the science in particular. This dogma about the velocity appears to be only the self fulfilling prophesy, since if it is never tried, the speed of light will never be exceeded, and the prophesy is thus fulfilled! I believe that it is necessary to try to exceed the speed of light, and I have no doubt whatsoever that one day somebody will succeed in such an attempt! I believe that it is self-evident that the theoretical physics, beside its obvious usefulness in the calculations of many diverse physical problems, has the paramount goal to search for the ultimate truth of the nature and the presumed underlying order of the universe. It is the beauty and the grandeur of the presumed and perceived order of the universe, Kant's starry sky, that creates the zeal which is necessary in the pursuit of the ultimate truth of nature, no matter how unattainable and unreachable it may appear to be! I must repeat that it is the human destiny to always try to reach the unreachable stars! Otherwise, life becomes meaningless!
I trust that you will furnish a copy of this letter to Dr. John Maddox. Also, I was unable to obtain the e-mail address for the Editor of the London Times. So, please furnish also the copies of this letter of mine and the copy of my letter of October 31, 1999 to the Editor of the London Times. Thank you very much for your attention. Your assistance is appreciated very much.
Subject: POPPER VERSUS EINSTEIN, REFUTATION OF THE THEORY OF RELATIVITY
Date: Tue, 08 Feb 2000 19:03:42 +0100
From: Jovan Djuric <firstname.lastname@example.org>
To: Graham Hill BBC producer and Christopher Gunnes BBC presenter <email@example.com>
CC: Dr. Christoph von Mettenheim DrCvM@t-online.de, Martin Redfern producer BBC Science in Action firstname.lastname@example.org, Frederick Dove presenter BBC Outlook <email@example.com>,
Alun Anderson <firstname.lastname@example.org>, Roger Wäppling Editor <email@example.com>, Scientific American Editors <firstname.lastname@example.org>,Nature Editors <email@example.com>, Journal of Physics A <firstname.lastname@example.org>,
Professor F.W. Hehl co-editor Annalen der Physik <email@example.com>,
Physics Department UNM <firstname.lastname@example.org>, Professor Richard H. Williams UNM <email@example.com>,
Gary Vaughn and John McGuffin <GVaughn@worldnet.att.net>,
Editor IEEE Spectrum c/o Marsha Longshore <firstname.lastname@example.org>
My Open letter to Dr. John Maddox, retired former Editor of NATURE of October 31, 1999 and my follow-up letter of December 1, 1999 in connection with the discussion on the BBC program AGENDA on Sunday October 31, 1999 are hereby rounded and concluded by the reference to a book which was recently brought to my attention. Namely, it is the book entitled POPPER VERSUS EINSTEIN (1998) by Christoph von Mettenheim, in which the theory of relativity is refuted and new solutions are proposed for the problems left open after the refutation of the theory of relativity by Popper's Logic of Scientific Discovery. The late Sir Karl R. Popper is a distinguished philosopher, a Jewish refugee from nazi annexed Vienna, Austria. The review of that book is quoted here verbatim:
Karl Popper's theory of scientific knowledge has become famous for the criterion of falsifiability which Popper had explained in his LOGIK DER FORSCHUNG (1934). (English translation LOGIC OF SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY, 1959). Christoph von Mettenheim considers 'methodological nominalism', which Popper developed under Tarski's influence not much later, and which he discussed in his OPEN SOCIETY AND IT'S ENEMIES (1945), the even more universal principle in which the methodology of science meets with that of ethics. The informational content of concepts is not given, but comes from convention. Even the rules of logic themselves are not pre-existent, but rest on nominalistic definitions of simple terms. Logic is not an expression of truth; but it is an expression of veracity. In RECHTS UND RATIONALITAET (1984) von Mettenheim had applied these principles to legal theory and ethics. He now transfers them to theoretical physics for which they were originally intended by Karl Popper. Part 1 contains a criticism of Einstein's theory of relativity which (in Popper's terminology) starts from an uncritical rationalism by regarding mathematics itself as a source of knowledge. An interpretation of the theory avoiding contradictions shows that the theory will not stand up to Popper's criterion of falsifiability, in this shape it has been empirically refuted. In Part 2 the author proposes new solutions for the problems left open after refutation of the theory of relativity. These propositions conform with the requirements of Popper's theory of scientific knowledge. They include a new explanation of gravity starting from a modified ether hypothesis which will permit the harmonization of macrophysics and microphysics for the first time in the history of science since Newton.
End of review.
I believe that my unified field theory of gravitation and electromagnetism is THE FIRST AND ONLY ATTEMPT to create a theory which can be applied to gravitation and electromagnetism, i.e. , to both macrocosm and microcosm, i.e. , to macrophysics and microphysics as the author Dr. Christoph von Mettenheim proposed, but without any need for any ether hypothesis. The unification is based on the experimental facts and four experimental laws: Newton's, Coulomb's, Laplace-Biot-Savart-Ampere's and Faraday's law, not on pure mathematical equations as the general theory of relativity. Last three laws form the foundations of the conventional non-symmetrical Maxwell equations, from which Maxwell predicted the electromagnetic waves, which Heinrich Hertz discovered few years later. The symmetrization of the Maxwell equations is obtained by the introduction of Newton's law, which is certainly an experimental law to which Newton gave mathematical form, famous and well known to all school kids throughout the world. My unified field theory consistently classifies and fits all known experimental facts of nature with clear explanations for the first time. This unified field theory confirms, among many other facts, Hugo Dingler's belief (Hugo Dingler is a well known German philosopher of science) "that the theory of electricity will one day be derived from Newton's law of gravitation" (cf. p. 81, K. Popper's LOGIC OF SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY, Hutchinson of London, 1959), albeit with some modification as shown in the equation (23) of my paper. This modification contains repulsion, i.e. , the antigravity in some situations when v > c, while in the general theory of relativity one constant is defined as the antigravity for convenience of that theory. My paper points out that the gravitationally stabilized model of the electrical charge is possible, as Hugo Dingler believed, which model can easily change sign under the appropriate forces, as electrons become positive holes in some physical situations of the p-type semiconductors and some metals. The theory of relativity is obviously experimentally refuted by the observations in astrophysics and the expanding universe where distances between the moving galaxies are expressed and measured in millions upon millions of light years with the velocity (referred to in jargon terms as "recessional") proportional to their distance from one another, well over the speed of light c. The dogmatic belief of the theory of relativity that the speed of the light is the limiting velocity is untenable before the spectacle of such an enormously expanding universe with such velocities. And that dogma is apparently based on a single mathematical fact that the square root of one minus (velocity over c) squared is not defined in the real domain when the velocity is greater than c. It is absurd to stick to that dogma tenaciously, rather than to abandon such mathematical expressions as counterproductive. In my theory mass does not vary with the velocity, but electrical charge does, and apparently becomes zero when v = c, and it is possible according to my theory to accelerate electrons above the speed of light by taking into account all forces including gravity. But as I stated earlier in my letter of October 31, 1999, I was unsuccessful to obtain the support for such experiments, while at the Fermi and CERN labs and elsewhere electrons are accelerated neglecting gravitational effects upon electrons.
I take this opportunity to include a concluding sentence from the discussion entitled THE SIMPLE UNIVERSE on Page 6, October 1999 issue of IEEE Spectrum: "Today's physicists are locked into relativity theory just as the church of Galileo's days was locked into Ptolomy's planetary system." It appears that today's physicists - relativists are believers rather than scientists. Scientists are always ready to discuss different views, but not relativists, who apparently consider Einstein almost as a deity, and who prevented the publication of my unified field theory for well over 30 (thirty) years, thus preventing the necessary experiments.
My brief paper entitled UNIFICATION OF GRAVITATION AND ELECTROMAGNETISM is still on the Internet site
Addenda on May 29, 2000
Following the publication of the Boomerang project results in the Journal Nature, the BBC on it's Internet Site brought on Wednesday, April 26, 2000 at 19:59 GMT (UTC) the following information quoted here verbatim:
"A high-flying balloon that soared over Antarctica has answered one of cosmology's greatest questions by revealing that the fabric of the Universe is "flat". To astronomers - flat means that the usual rules of geometry are observed - light not being bent by gravity travels in straight lines, not curves. But since Albert Einstein proposed that the Universe may be "curved", the debate has been open."
Various comments are also included on that BBC Internet Site, among which the BBC's Christine McGourty stated:
"The Universe is flat and will probably expand forever."
Other comments are not quoted here. The interested reader is referred to the BBC Internet Site.
This author repeats again that the relativity theory is logically wrong as was clear to many scientists long time ago, but their views were subdued and disregarded by the relativists in power, not by arguments, but by totally ignoring those views and by preventing the publication of such critical views and new ideas. The relativity theory should be abandoned as counterproductive to the progress of science.
This author takes the opportunity to update the facts about the efforts to publish this unified field theory. Although submitted electronically, by the hard copy (sic!) letter dated November 19, 1999 the Editor in chief Vincent Rivasseau of ANNALES HENRI POINCARE without any opinion wrote: "Your paper "Unification of Gravitation and Electromagnetism" is unsuited for publication in ANNALES HENRI POINCARE." Also, The Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts in Belgrade by the hard copy letter dated December 30, 1999, but mailed on December 29, 1999 rejected this paper as unsuitable for publication without any comment or opinion. This author heard gossip that some academicians stated that this paper contained nothing new, since such attempt was presumably tried even during Maxwell's lifetime. This is ridiculous. Nobody could have dreamed about such theory at that time, since it was firmly believed that the Earth was a magnetized body. The mentioned gossip shows the utter ignorance of facts on the part of some Serbian academicians, one of whom, academician Zvonko Maric had the copies of this author's old unpublished papers, which copies were not returned to this author, in which copies the history of various attempts to explain geomagnetism is cited following Pierre Curie's experiment of 1895 proving that magnetism disappears when the material is heated above the so-called Curie's temperature. The Earth is too hot, of course, to be a permanent magnet except at some points. They, the Serbian academicians, failed to realize that in this paper, for the first time, the two points, the center of mass and the center of self-gravity, are clearly distinguished and properly utilized as two very important points. There is a great deal of confusion about these two points in the textbooks and the literature so far, and very often, they are interchanged and even considered as one point which is utterly wrong. But those Serbian academicians fall perhaps into the category of "learned ignoramuses" as the famous Spanish philosopher late Jose Ortega y Gasset called such specialists, who also wrote in his famous work THE REVOLT OF THE MASSES : "The most immediate result of this unbalanced specialization has been that to-day, when there are more "scientists" than ever, there are much less "cultured" men than, for example, about 1750. And the worst is that with these turnspits of science not even the real progress of science itself is assured. For science needs from time to time, as necessary regulator of its own advance, a labour of reconstitution, and as I have said, this demands an effort towards unification, which grows more and more difficult, involving, as it does, ever-vaster regions of the world of knowledge." And a bit further he wrote: "But Einstein is not sufficient. Physics is entering on the gravest crisis of its history, and can only be saved by a new "Encyclopaedia" more systematic than the first." This author is attempting the true unification of gravitation and electromagnetism, i.e., of macrophysics and microphysics, and the publication of these new ideas appears to be essential for the discussion and further experiments. The publication of these ideas is denied so far without any real argument, but dogmatically by those physicists in power, who are probably afraid to lose their power by publishing new bold ideas.
Professor F. Hehl, co-editor of ANNALEN DER PHYSIK has not yet responded since October 10, 1999, when this paper was electronically submitted.
December 14, 2000
Since ANNALEN DER PHYSIK apparently decided to ignore my paper, which was electronically offered for possible publications, my paper was electronically submitted in the PostScript format for possible publication to the Physical Review D on June 29, 2000 with my obligation to retype my paper in the required REVTeX format incorporating corrections and suggestions of the referees. Instead of the expected opinions of the referees, which would be valuable to improve my paper, I received on August 2, 2000 the following e-mail letter from Dr. Erick J. Weinberg, Editor, Physical Review D <email@example.com>:
Dear Dr. Djuric:
I am writing in reference to your manuscript ``Unification of gravitation and electromagnetism'' (DT7305). Physical Review D does not, in general, publish papers on speculative alternatives to or reinterpretations of currently accepted theories unless stringent requirements are met. Papers that lie outside the mainstream of current research must justify their publication by including a clear and convincing discussion of the motivation for the new speculation, with reasons for introducing any new concepts. This discussion should be at a level of detail and precision comparable to that of the accepted theory, and should be at a level of discourse appropriate to the current state of research in the field. If the new formulation results in contradictions with the accepted theory, then there must be both a discussion of what experiments could be done to show that the conventional theory needs improvement, and an analysis showing that the new theory is consistent with existing experiments.
Upon reading your manuscript, I conclude that your paper does not satisfy all of these requirements. I am afraid that it is therefore not suitable for publication in Physical Review D.
Sincerely, Erick J. Weinberg, Editor, Physical Review D. End.
I considered this letter very carefully. Instead of some specific suggestions, this letter is general and can be used as a FORM LETTER for any paper "outside the mainstream of current research". The repetition of the words "accepted theories" appears to remind the reader on dogmatism, which is the gravest, most dangerous enemy of science and humanity. The word "accepted" without any qualification is too strong and suggests the absolute, almost God given status. A theory of physics or any other subject may be accepted by some people and rejected by others. All theories of physics live precarious lives. The history of science is full of fallen theories, which were destroyed by facts or replaced by better ones. And that made the progress of science and humanity possible, for which many known and unknown heroes paid ultimate sacrifice to make that progress possible, to mention only the great gallant man Giordano Bruno. THE PUBLICATION OF BOLD NEW IDEAS IN ORDER TO FACILITATE THEIR DISSEMINATION AND THEIR DISCUSSION IS THE ONLY TRUE JUSTIFICATION OF THE EXISTENCE OF ANY SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL. BY INSISTING ONLY ON THE ACCEPTED THEORIES AND BY PREVENTING THE PUBLICATION OF NEW, BOLD AND CONTROVERSIAL THEORIES, THE SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS AND THEIR EDITORS HINDER THE PROGRESS OF SCIENCE AND ASSIST THE PROPONENTS OF THE "ACCEPTED THEORIES" TO UNCRITICALLY OBTAIN ENORMOUS FUNDS FOR THEIR RESEARCH PROJECTS, FROM WHICH THEY, THE PROPONENTS OF THE "ACCEPTED THEORIES", LAVISHLY FATTEN THEIR PAYCHECKS FROM ALMOST ALWAYS PUBLIC MONEY PAID BY TAXPAYERS !
Power corrupts, and absolute power corrupts absolutely, to quote Lord Acton. THE PREVENTION OF THE PUBLICATIONS OF NEW IDEAS CONTRARY TO THE "ACCEPTED THEORIES" IS IDENTICAL TO THE PREVENTION OF FREE PRESS, MEDIA AND OPPOSITION BY VARIOUS POLITICAL DICTATORS, AGAINST WHICH THE ONLY REMEDY APPEARS TO BE THE Belgrade Style STORM of October 5, 2000 with and by OTPOR, SADLY AND UNFORTUNATELY. OTPOR means RESISTANCE in Serbian. To quote the great American statesman Thomas Jefferson, THE TREE OF LIBERTY WILL HAVE FOREVER, FROM TIME TO TIME, TO BE SHED WITH BLOOD OF TYRANTS AND HEROES.
My unified field theory is essentially the unification of the two accepted theories and it covers consistently a very large number of physical phenomena, considerably larger than any existing physical theory. I am fully aware of the shortcomings of my theory, which are clearly stated. The enormous amount of work, experimental as well as theoretical, remains to be done, but nobody was willing so far to fund that research, since no publication was secured so far for almost 40 years. My theory solves, provisionally and subject to experimental verification, the greatest unresolved problem of macrophysics, i.e., the relationship between gravitation and electromagnetism, two macroscopically observed fields, which, according to the present-day establishment of physics, are considered as unrelated and referred to as the first and the second force of nature, respectively, which is nonsense and totally wrong according to my theory! FOR THE PAST 40 YEARS I WATCHED WITH SADNESS HOW UNTOLD BILLIONS AND BILLIONS OF DOLLARS WERE SPENT AND WASTED FOR RESEARCH FOR THE PRESUMABLY "PREDICTED" GRAVITATIONAL WAVES, THE "ELUSIVE" MAGNETIC MONOPOLES AND THE EXTRA LARGE ACCELERATORS FOR PARTICLE PHYSICS RESEARCH without producing anything worth-while in my opinion for all that research money! But, according to my theory, NOT ONE SINGLE CENT SHOULD HAVE BEEN SPENT ON ALL THAT RESEARCH, which was fundamentally wrong! It is sad to watch the humiliating spectacle of a large number of presumably highly intelligent persons - particle physicists - frantically attempting to gain understanding of microcosm, where very little can be really seen, while leaving nonchalantly the total non-understanding of macrocosm and macroscopic forces, where many things can be easily seen and measured, and referring almost happily to those forces as the first and the second force of nature! But I was denied any financial support for my research, since my theory contradicts one "accepted theory", the theory of relativity! Due to the lack of any financial support, my theoretical research was referred to in 1969 as "playing with Boy Scouts" by the Dean of the College where I was teaching, although I duly received the fifth award in 1963 for my short essay from the Gravity Research Foundation in New Boston, New Hampshire, U.S.A., and some opinions referred to my theory as "quite unique, and if correct, its ramifications are revolutionary". I was even labeled as "anti-Semitic", which is an insult to me and my numerous Jewish friends, since, as already mentioned, my theory contradicts totally the theory of relativity, which, in fact, was refuted logically by the famous philosopher of science the late Sir Karl Popper, Jewish by origin, and experimentally refuted by the Boomerang Project whose results were published in April of this 2000 year. But, unfortunately, by discrimination, conspiracy and perjuries, I lost my tenured professorship at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, New Mexico, U.S.A. in 1976. Since the reader may be interested, I was even involuntarily retired, because according to some psychiatrists in Albuquerque, I suffered "life-long pattern of maladaptiveness". Namely, I fought against the nazi-German occupation of my native country of Yugoslavia during the World War II, I opposed the communist dictatorship in Yugoslavia immediately after the end of the World War II, and for my peaceful opposition, I was expelled from the University of Belgrade in 1949 at the very moment that I conceived the idea of my unified field theory. Upon coming to the U.S.A. as an immigrant, I peacefully opposed the irrational war in Vietnam, and according to those psychiatrists, I was made to "always oppose the authority, to which he must relate". In my search of truth and justice for all, including myself throughout my entire life, I never tolerated untruths, lies and injustices. So I lost my job by hooks and crooks at the age of 50 almost 25 years ago, but I am still interested and eager to prove or disprove my theoretical ideas by experiments, IN PARTICULAR, TO TRY TO ACCELERATE ELECTRICALLY CHARGED PARTICLES ABOVE THE SPEED OF LIGHT, WHICH, I BELIEVE, IS POSSIBLE.
May 26, 2001
TRUE LIFE OF JOVAN DJURIC
(As e-mailed to firstname.lastname@example.org)
Dear Mr. Michael Rosen:
This is written in response to your invitation and your challenge to all listeners of the BBC "to launch themselves into the unknown by writing about their true lives".
Every human life is a continuous series of the intertwined ups and downs of various scales, i.e., of triumphs and disasters of various scales. The true wisdom in life is "to meet with Triumph and Disaster, And treat those two imposters just the same", as the great poet Rudyard Kipling wrote in his famous poem IF so exquisitely.
In writing about my true life, I shall try my best to be as short as possible, but with my life of over three quarters of a century, that is a very difficult task ANYWAY, I TRULY INTEND WITH YOUR KIND ASSISTANCE TO LAUNCH MYSELF AND THE ENTIRE HUMANITY INTO THE UNKNOWN, AS IT APPEARS IN MY MIND.
I believe that it is a triumph of a sort that I am probably one among the oldest listeners of the BBC. My love affair with radio and the companionship with the BBC began before the World War II, i.e., before September of 1939, when as a gymnasium (high school) student I became a radio amateur learning to assemble radios. This determined my professional life of an electronic engineer and led me to the life long companionship with the BBC, which influenced me a great deal. I learned English by listening to the BBC and much, much more about the people of the world, their lives and their ideas, for which I am truly grateful to all dedicated workers of the BBC, without whose contributions and works my life would have been certainly different. The BBC was a window of hope and truth during the dark years of the German-nazi occupation of my native country of Serbia, a portion of former Yugoslavia, during the WW II, and subsequently during the prolonged decades of the communist dictatorship in my native country until very recently. On my first trip to the USA in October 1959 via London, I was fortunate to visit the BBC Bush House to bring my token gifts of my appreciation - plum brandy of Serbia, etc. - for the people of the BBC English by Radio Department led at that time by Mr. Sidney Stevens.
The disaster came in 1941 to my native country. I survived on April 6, 1941 the bombing by the German-nazi Luftwaffe of the city of Skoplje, where I lived at that time. Skoplje was occupied by the nazis next day, so I left it and I enrolled myself as a volunteer soldier of the Yugoslav Army. I was not quite 16, but I was very much opposed to nazism - racism - fascism and I was fairly mature. Unfortunately, the Yugoslav Army capitulated in a few days, and somehow I arrived at the end of April 1941 in my birthplace Sabac (pronounced shabats), a town on the right bank of the river Sava about 50 miles west of Belgrade. I received the certificate of the fifth grade from the local gymnasium in June 1941 after some checking, just about the time of the German attack on the Soviet Russia. During that summer of 1941 I was a volunteer employed at a local garage. A Jewish man, hardly older than myself, from Amsterdam, Holland was assigned to do the dirtiest, most difficult tasks in that garage. He was a very clever and handy man who made some very useful items sold or given to the local people. I witnessed cruel beating of him by a Gestapo officer and a local Serb - quisling without any reason whatsoever, and I could do nothing to prevent it. It was a small comfort to that Jewish man that I brought some food items for him from a local food store into which he was forbidden to enter. But the events were moving with the lightening speed. At the beginning of July 1941 the uprising took place in occupied Serbia, and in August 1941 the combined forces of the communist led partisans and the chetniks led by General Draza Mihajlovic attacked Sabac and liberated an outskirt, which was later destroyed to the ground by the German punishment expedition. All male inhabitants of Sabac from 12 to 70 years of age, including myself and my two brothers - our father was at that time a prisoner of war in Germany - were rounded by German troops and driven across the Sava river to the left bank which was the territory of then the fascist independent state of Croatia. It appears that the German troops believed that we were all chetniks and partisans, and they were preparing the machine-guns to shoot us all, but at the last moment a speeding car came and stopped the execution. We were forced to run a stretch of about 10 miles to the bare ground site fenced by the barbed wire. During that run anybody who could not keep the pace and stopped was shot dead at the spot by the German soldiers and the Croatian ustashis. I carried my brother on my back for a mile towards the end of that run, since I could not live to see him shot, and he was totally exhausted, ready to stop. When we reached the turnstile of that barbed wire camp, I was almost dead of exhaustion. At the head of that running column was a group of about 200 Jews, some from Sabac and many from other European cities, including my friend from Amsterdam, whom I never saw again. They were particularly ruthlessly driven and about 100 of them were killed. Of about 5,000 people, about 500 were killed during that run in early September 1941. Then, for three days and nights we were without any food and practically without water on that bare ground, and anybody who moved during the chilly September night was shot. After about a week we were all returned on foot but without running or shooting with some food and water back to Sabac to the concentration camp in the army barracks for identity checking and most of us were released at the end of October 1941 and in November 1941. I and my two brothers were lucky to survive that ordeal.
The remaining three more years of the German occupation were very hard with constant shortage of food. I continued studies in the local gymnasium. All radios were confiscated in July 1941 immediately after the uprising. The possession of a secret non-registered radio was punishable by death or long term imprisonment in a concentration camp with hard labor in Germany, but I continued with my love affair to build and fix secret radios including small radio transmitters of the underground partisan movement, with which I cooperated. I was arrested three times by the Gestapo and the quisling special police, interrogated and beaten but released after a month or so, since they found no real evidence against me. My secret radio parts were carefully hidden and assembled in a few minutes before listening when the Gestapo or secret police raids were unlikely. I graduated in June 1944. At the point of gun with the bullet placed in the chamber before my very eyes I was beaten twice in 1944 in the main street of Sabac in full daylight by two quisling Serbian officers, but I survived to see the German troops and the quislings leaving Sabac for good on October 23, 1944, six months before the end of WW II. I was 19 years old then.
The liberation shook me thoroughly and almost disastrously. The partisans took the power and immediately arrested some prominent wealthy men, accused them of collaboration with the German occupation forces and summarily executed them dumping their bodies into the Sava river from the remnants of a destroyed bridge and confiscated their property almost always for their private use. The Sava river was again carrying Serbian bodies, just like in 1941 it carried bodies of Serbs killed by ustashis in Croatia. I was dismayed totally. I was at that time a private - soldier in the Yugoslav National Liberation Army in charge of the radio repair post. I lodged my protest and indignation with the appropriate committee only to be told to shut up or face the same music. I was flabbergasted, astounded beyond belief. I immediately cut all my political connections with the partisan movement, but I continued with all my duties of a soldier conscientiously, since the WW II was still going on. I hoped that the things may improve after the war is finished, but I felt very uneasy. I was educated to follow strictly the Golden Rule, which is essentially the categorical moral imperative of the famous philosopher Immanuel Kant, and all my decisions and actions were done in conformity with that Rule. I was astonished that the communists in pursuit of power did not realize that killing and robbing of some wealthy people can never bring happiness to the rest of the people, but can bring only misery and tragedy in the long run for the entire society. My father was a judge and my mother was a teacher. They were strict morally. I followed their example.
The WW II ended in Europe in May 1945. I was discharged honorably from the Army and towards the end of 1945 I enrolled as a student of electronic engineering at the University of Belgrade. The elections in November 1945 without any real choice only cemented the communist dictatorship in my native country. As a student I refused to participate in any extracurricular activities, like summer railroad campaigns, manifestations, etc., devoting myself strictly to studies of science. In Fall 1946 during the third semester, the communist led People's Student Organization proclaimed the boycott against the so-called anti-people students, including myself and some colleagues. Nobody dared to speak to us. In a big amphitheater, Hall 56, where lectures were held for our class 1945 of over 500 students, with three rows of big benches and the total seating capacity of over 300 students to sit comfortably and take notes, the right row of benches was designated in big letters "PLACES FOR ANTI-PEOPLE STUDENTS". My fellow boycotted colleagues were frightened to come to the lectures, but I was fearless and indomitable. I never missed a single lecture and I was sitting all alone in the right row of benches, while the other two rows of benches were overwhelmingly crowded by 200 to 300 students. That situation lasted for two semesters in the same amphitheater. In the fifth semester we were split in quite smaller groups and moved to much smaller classrooms. The boycott continued until Spring of 1949, when on March 31 1949 I found my name on a list among 70 students of the various departments of the College (Faculty) of Engineering expelled from the University of Belgrade and all other universities in Yugoslavia with the citation of the most absurd false accusations. At that time during my studies, I conceived the idea of my unified field theory, which will be the subject of the separate paragraph, and it is essentially for that reason that I took the trouble to write this short review of my TRUE LIFE.
I had to find any employment then, since the post-war rationing was still in effect, and everybody had to work to be entitled to food rations. I somehow found a work position. After a year and a half, I was allowed to continue my studies and I graduated in August 1951 with the average grade 9.40 out of 10. I obtained Doctor of Science degree in February 1954, but I never obtained the professorship at the Belgrade University where I intended to continue the work on my unified field theory. Obviously, I did not fit in the Yugoslav communist society. In Summer 1959 the American Mathematical Society, Providence, Rhode Island, USA asked me to translate a number of scientific papers from Russian into English with handsome payment. I earned soon almost 1,000.00 U.S. dollars, which was a large sum in 1959, and I asked to be invited at my cost to visit the American Mathematical Society and to present my works at their meetings. So I flew to the USA in October 1959 via London, where I visited the BBC as mentioned above. In November 1959 I was appointed the visiting Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering at the Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. After the end of that academic 1959 - 1960 year, I returned to Belgrade in June 1960 to the great surprise of all my friends in Belgrade, since I had problems with the US visa. After some inquiry and further investigation, I was informed by Mr. England from the US Embassy in Belgrade in Spring 1961 that my visa problems were cleared. In September 1961 I flew via London as an immigrant to the USA and I was appointed Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. My return to Belgrade in 1960 proved to be fortunate for me, since I happily married my long-term girlfriend and colleague in January 1961, to whom I am still happily married. But my dear mother died just before my second flight to the USA.
At the UNM, I immediately took the steps to publish my unified field theory. In June 1963 I received the fifth award of US $ 100.00 for my very short essay from the Gravity Research Foundation in New Boston, New Hampshire, USA in the annual international competition of essays on gravity. That essay was never published although it was offered to every possible journal of physics. The rejections were always without any opinion. In fact my paper was totally ignored. Most copies were never returned by the editors. It became obvious to me that the editors saw in my paper the ideas which totally contradicted the theory of relativity. Similar things happened with all my subsequent papers about my unified field theory. At about that time, the political clouds were gathering over the USA. The assassination of President Kennedy happened in November 1963, and the war in Vietnam was seriously escalated by President Johnson early in 1965. I was astounded by these events. I saw the tragedy approaching the USA, and I was unable to do anything to stop it. In 1965 in a discussion with the colleague in the Electrical Engineering Department Office before the secretaries and other people, including the head of the EE Department, I stated that President Johnson was never going to be re-elected, because the war in Vietnam was unwinnable as the history clearly showed, except that the history also shows that the history never taught anybody anything. I said that the USA could annihilate Vietnam technologically and proclaim victory over the nuclearly devastated land, but could not do that because of the moral restraints before the world. I was ridiculed by that colleague at that time. I felt compelled to repeat the same opinion to all my students ex cathedra, since all those students could be sent to Vietnam after the graduation. The result was that I was passed for promotion, my salary was almost frozen in spite of inflation. Since my papers about my unified field theory were not published, I was unable to obtain funds for experiments, and my research was referred to by the Dean of the UNM College of Engineering as "playing with Boy Scouts". Upon my complaints the Academic Freedom and Tenure Committee found in 1971 that I was indeed discriminated and recommended back pay and immediate raise of my salary and promotion under certain conditions, but the UNM administration rejected all that. Then, upon my complaint, the Human Rights Commission of the State of New Mexico issued on May 25, 1972 PROBABLE CAUSE FINDING of unlawful discrimination against me at the UNM, the State university, and ordered hearing. Whereupon, the UNM administration on May 31, 1972 but backdated May 15, 1972 issued the intention to terminate me. This retaliation is strictly against the law. The hearing before The Human Rights Commission of the State of New Mexico took place in September 1972, but after the lunch break the attorney, who represented me, did not return., and although I insisted to continue without him, the presiding officer decided to postpone the hearing pending new hearing at a later date in order to protect my rights as stated. Such hearing never took place in spite of my numerous demands, but the UNM Administration changed the termination proceedings against me into the involuntary retirement proceedings against me. The UNM Regents acting in obvious violation of laws and statutes of the UNM and the State of New Mexico decided to "retire" me on August 22. 1974, since, as a psychiatrist stated "Dr. Djuric suffered the life-long pattern of maladaptivness", and that apparently my opposition of the U.S. Authorities was the continuation of my fight against nazism and communism. I was ordered to apply for the pension from the Educational Retirement Board of the State of New Mexico, which rejected the decision of the UNM Regents about my retirement. Then the UNM Administration reinstated the termination proceedings against me, but the Human Rights Commission did nothing. By that time I was totally alienated and boycotted, so I had to re-live the situation which was quite similar to the situation at the Belgrade University from 1946 till my expulsion in 1949. I AM NOT SURE WHETHER THE COMMUNISTS AT THE BELGRADE UNIVERSITY OR THE "DEMOCRATS" AT THE UNM WERE WORSE. The human beings, particularly the power holders are the most brutal animals when they abandon the civilizing effects of laws and formal behavior in pursuit of power, regardless of the ideology of the regime. I still wonder whether and where I made any mistake in those two similar situations. At UNM, I was labeled as anti-Semitic, since my unified field theory contradicts the theory of relativity, which, in my opinion and also of many other thinkers, is basically wrong. More about that later. During the prolonged hearings before a new Academic Freedom and Tenure Committee in 1975, testimonies about my views and predictions about the war in Vietnam were heard from the witnesses exactly at the time of the total withdrawal of the U.S. troops from Vietnam. In spite of the obvious discrimination against me and the numerous violations of the State and the Federal laws, and obvious perjuries the said Committee conspired and concurred with my termination to my astonishment. I was terminated on March 5, 1976, the FIRST AND ONLY TENURED MEMBER OF THE FACULTY of any U.S. university to lose the tenured professorship. I was upset very much, and I was unable to obtain any position, so upon application, I duly received the disability pay from the Educational Retirement Board of the State of New Mexico and the U.S. Social Security Administration, and I was effectively retired involuntarily. I was 50 years old at that time. I had some health problems during that prolonged ordeal, and I was on sick leave for a semester in 1970. I was naturalized into U.S. citizenship on April 15, 1968, when I believed that I shall never return to my native country. I must mention here my dear friend Mr. Jose David Cordova, barber and poet in Spanish, whose friendship and support were invaluable for me during this prolonged ordeal at the UNM, a TRUE FRIEND INDEED for me all alone in the USA during all that ordeal from 1969 till 1976. He established in his Campus Barber Shop a trust fund for the defense of human rights of Professor Jovan Djuric. Also Mr. Gary Vaughn, electronic engineer and my former student, gave me much comfort and support with his true friendship during all that time, ANOTHER TRUE FRIEND. Discovering many facts and further developing my unified field theory absorbed me very much during that time. Also, I was very busy sending my papers to various journals for possible publication.
Unable to obtain any position in the U.S.A., I returned to Belgrade in 1977. I was never offered any position in Yugoslavia. I decided to stop all efforts for the publication of my numerous unpublished papers about my unified field theory. Those papers were ignored and rejected even when I was professor at the UNM. I was a stranger in my native country. I continued my companionship with the BBC, which was always for me the window to the world. I continued with my scientific and professional interests. I fixed numerous electronic devices to many friends and acquaintances free, but the spare parts were paid by the owners. To prove to myself that I am not anti-Semitic, I fixed the TV set of the Jewish Community Office in Belgrade, where the son of my Jewish friend Mr. Isak Tajtacakovic was employed at that time, and they gave me as their gratitude the gift of various books about the history of the Jewry in Yugoslavia, which helped me to understand them better. During the December 1990 Elections in Serbia, which was then a Republic in former Yugoslavia, I was astonished to see that the majority was going to vote for Milosevic. I told everybody then before those Elections that in my opinion, Milosevic was the worst enemy of the Serbian people in particular, and of all Yugoslav people in general. But my views were ignored by the majority of my acquaintances and friends. I predicted catastrophe for the Serbian people if Milosevic were elected. Unfortunately, Milosevic was elected with the landslide in the surprisingly free Elections in December 1990, and that brought a continuous series of catastrophic tragedies for the Serbian people and all people in former Yugoslavia for the past 10 years, including the bombing of Serbia in 1999. I am saddened very much to realize that my prediction was so tragically correct. But the tragedy must be traced back to 1944 and 1945 when the Serbian people in particular and all other people of former Yugoslavia did not oppose more vigorously the communist take-over of power in Yugoslavia by killing and robbing, which moved me and upset me so much in 1944 and determined my entire life. All people of former Yugoslavia, including the Serbian people bear substantial responsibility for what happened in former Yugoslavia from 1944 on. In spite of many difficulties and sufferings, I would not change any of my actions in my entire life. My actions were pure and honest. I do not believe that I hurt anybody knowingly. But in my search for truth and justice for all, including myself, and opposing untruths, lies and injustices at every moment of my life, I must have offended many, especially those in power.
The research results from the University of Nottingham, England in 1997 about the magnetic levitation of various organic matters woke me up from my scientific hibernation for over two decades. This brings me to my unified field theory, which is the true reason for my writing about some true events in my life as described above, but omitting many events and details. I shall now try to describe my scientific ideas and my unified field theory as simply as possible, so to be, hopefully, understandable to any reasonably educated modern human being, who can certainly read with full understanding all ADDENDA to my main paper, as well as the large portions of it, as they all appear on my Internet Site: http://members.tripod.com/~djuricfield , without any specialized knowledge. In 1948 during my studies I became aware of the obvious inadequacy of physics. The reference to gravitation as the FIRST force of nature, electromagnetism as the SECOND force of nature, weak atomic interaction as the THIRD force of nature and strong atomic interaction as the FOURTH force of nature strongly resembled to Aristotle's ideas about four basic elements. NATURA NON FACIT SALTUS, i.e., nature makes no leaps, as many philosophers stated. The view of the four basic forces of nature, which is still the basic viewpoint of the establishment in physics up to this moment, without apparently any interconnections, appeared to me as untenable. Studying at that time over 50 years ago the theory of relativity I saw its obvious inadequacies. Early in 1949 I conceived the idea how to connect gravitation and electromagnetism by symmetrizing the famous Maxwell equations. The conventional Maxwell equations are strangely nonsymmetrical, which is the conventional view held in physics up to this moment, disregarding totally my theory. The classical model of Sir Isaac Newton of our planetary system describes each celestial body as a mass point. That model is still in use, and it is very valuable. But I saw that that model can be very much improved easily by assigning two points to each celestial body, namely, its center of self gravity and its center of mass. These two points never coincide for any real celestial body, except in the extreme case of the perfect symmetry of the celestial body, which never occurs in nature. By symmetrizing the Maxwell equations and using the mentioned two points for each celestial body it is possible to fit an extraordinarily large number of true facts of our planetary system within one model, and to identify the conventional magnetic field, which all celestial bodies possess, as the special manifestation of the gravity of that celestial body. The conventional magnetic field of the celestial body must be influenced and somewhat changed by all other celestial bodies, the fact which has been observed for the Earth's magnetic field for well over a century. A celestial body pulls other celestial bodies with its gravitational field from its center of the self gravity - gravitational field, while other planets act upon that celestial body with their gravitational fields at its center of mass. This model, which is somewhat improved classical Newton's model and certainly without dramatical change, together with the symmetrized Maxwell equations form the essence of my unified field theory. The consequences of such unification of gravitation and electromagnetism are many. Suffice is to say that the origin and the variations of the conventional but still mysterious Earth's magnetic field, including its reversal, can be easily understood on the basis of this model. Of course, those variations are caused by the Moon, the Sun and all other planets and the continental drift. And the present International Earth's Gravity Formula, which is obtained with respect to the Earth's center of mass as the coordinate origin, and which Formula is obviously inadequate, can be substantially improved by shifting the coordinate origin to the Earth's center of gravity, thus producing dipolar term, which is missed in that Gravity Formula. I must add that there is a confusion in the literature about the center of self gravity and the center of mass, which are often erroneously interchanged and even identified as the same, which is totally wrong. Newton was undoubtedly the founder of science of physics. His point mass planetary model was certainly the revolution in his time. Newton never introduced mass distribution. So in his point mass model there can be no distinction between the center of gravity and the center of mass. But when about a century later the mass distribution was strictly defined, for over two centuries the two obvious points of any celestial body, i.e., the center of the self gravity and the center of mass were never clearly distinguished, but often confused for over two centuries. And my proposition to introduce the additional point, the center of self gravity, was ignored and rejected for over 40 years with obvious anger by many editors of all scientific journals to whom submitted without any opinion. My unified field theory is the true unification of the grandiose works of Newton, Faraday and Maxwell, the three true founders of modern physics. The true and complete understanding of the macroscopically observed fields of gravitation and electromagnetism with their interconnections MUST be obtained before venturing with research and modeling in the microscopic domain. My unified field theory represents the first and only attempt towards the true unification of those fields. It may not be absolutely true, it may probably be improved, but it certainly shows the way to proceed in further research towards the true unification without which further progress of science is impossible. The problem of a differential equation and its solution, which is defined in my theory, and it is clearly stated in my paper that that problem must be still investigated further, is the only difficulty in my theory. But the agreement of this theory with the extremely large number of facts about our planetary system is truly amazing. A gravitationally stabilized model of the electrical charge is possible on the basis of this unified field theory. And on the basis of that model, it is concluded that the acceleration of electrons above the speed of light is possible.
In my search for truth and justice for all, I never tolerated untruths, lies and injustices. And I always speak directly if and when I speak. I must state that all editors and referees of many scientific journals who rejected my papers without giving any opinion, are dangerous arrogant dictators, just as dangerous for the progress of humanity and science and truth, as the political dictators whom I had to suffer and oppose in my life and to see them go, to mention Milosevic as the last one to go into history. But the big powers, which cooperated with him for many years, bear substantial responsibility for his crimes. And the big powers erred in supporting financially and strengthening the communist dictatorship in former Yugoslavia for many years, i.e., decades.
I have to stop at this point. Anybody who is interested can read three ADDENDA and the large portion of my paper on my mentioned Internet Site without any specialized knowledge, and the history of my struggle to get my ideas published for the past three years when the experiments at the University of Nottingham woke me up from my scientific hibernation. Although I never obtained the exact results of those experiments, I believe that they are in conformity with my unified field theory. The modified Newton law, which is derived from my unified field theory and which includes the very important anti-gravity term when the velocity exceeds the speed of light, is in full agreement with the observed expanding universe and Hubble's observations in late 1920's of the recession of galaxies from each other with the recessional speed well above the speed of light. BUT THE THEORY OF RELATIVITY WRONGLY CLAIMS ON THE BASIS OF A SIMPLE MATHEMATICAL FORMULA THAT THE VELOCITY ABOVE THE SPEED OF LIGHT IS IMPOSSIBLE, APPARENTLY GIVING A MATHEMATICAL FORMULA THE STATUS OF A PHYSICAL LAW, WHICH IS OBVIOUSLY AND TOTALLY ABSURD, AND WHICH WAS CLEARLY INDICATED BY THE WELL-KNOWN PHILOSOPHER THE LATE SIR KARL POPPER. My unified field theory is in full agreement with the results of the BOOMERANG PROJECT published a year ago in NATURE, April 2000, and elsewhere that light - the cluster of electromagnetic waves - is not bent by the gravitational field, in direct opposition to the wrong assertion of the general theory of relativity that light is bent by gravitation. My unified field theory excludes the existence of any separate gravitational waves as wrongly predicted by the general theory of relativity and never detected in spite of very extensive and very expensive search for almost a century. There exist only gravito-electromagnetic waves, which are observed everywhere in the universe of various frequencies. The paper by Dr. L. Essen, Fellow of the Royal Society, published in The Proceedings of the Royal Institution of Great Britain, volume 45, 1972, pp. 141 - 160 must be mentioned here, in which Dr. Essen states that "the theory of relativity is readily demolished by the application of a little reason". On the basis of my unified field theory, I must state once more that I think that it is possible to accelerate electrons and other particles above the speed of light. It is with hope to raise sufficient interest and support, so that I can obtain sufficient funds to perform an experiment to accelerate electrons above the speed of light, i.e., to prove or disprove my theoretical ideas, that I wrote this very short history of my TRUE LIFE. In spite of my advanced age, I am very interested and eager and quite able to undertake the task to prove or disprove my theoretical ideas, AND TO LAUNCH MYSELF AND THE ENTIRE HUMANITY INTO THE UNKNOWN, AS IT APPEARS IN MY MIND.
I certainly hope that this writing of TRUE LIFE of me, Jovan Djuric, will not be ignored by the BBC and you, Mr. Michael Rosen. I took your challenge literally. Your first name Michael means in Hebrew mikhael who is like a God, and it happens to be the name of my nonidentical twin brother. My name Jovan is derived from Hebrew yohanan < yehohanan which means the Lord is gracious. You and I belong to the same civilization. Civilization means beside other things that when one fellow is addressed and greeted by another fellow, the addressed fellow MUST respond with greetings, since otherwise civilization ends and barbarism begins. I am saddened that the four fellow members of your BBC team ignored my direct approach with my greetings ( see the three ADDENDA on my mentioned Internet Site, particularly my letter of February 8, 2000 ) which were never acknowledged. So RUDE BEHAVIOR of English presumably younger generations as discussed on the BBC AGENDA on Sunday, May 13, 2001 begins unfortunately with the Producer and the Presenter of the very BBC AGENDA program, which is a very fine program of the BBC, and also with the Producer of the BBC SCIENCE IN ACTION which is also a very fine program, and also with the Presenter of OUTLOOK, which is also a very fine BBC program. If you decide to follow their example in spite of your direct invitation, because I happen to be a Serb by birth but truly a citizen of the world, i.e., evidently the worst barbarian as the people of the world condemned my native country and all Serbs, including presumably myself, for the past 10 years, BUT WRONGLY, I shall be very saddened watching "the things I gave my life to, broken", and the Serbs will have no alternative but to "stoop and build 'em up with worn-out tools" as the immortal Rudyard Kipling sang.
November 30, 2003
PAPER "THREE WISHES" AS E-MAILED TO THE BBC OUTLOOK
The text was written and edited by Jovan Djuric in the extensive care coronary unit of the City Hospital in Belgrade, while recuperating after the heart attack
Dear staff members of the BBC Outlook:
I am hereby entering your competition with your invitation to all listeners to write about the three wishes-dreams to be accomplished before death.
My first wish-dream is to see the publication of my paper "MAGNETISM AS
MANIFESTATION OF GRAVITATION" with the subsequent discussion and some
experiments performed to prove that planetary magnetism is truly a
manifestation of gravitation, which can be strictly and logically
incorporated into the Newton theory of gravitation as my paper shows.
That paper was refused to be even reviewed by many physics journals to
which it was submitted without any opinion, but one single editor stated
after over six months of reviewing that "Newton's theory of gravity is
no longer a valid starting point for developing new physical theories".
That editor insists that "one has to take care of the relativity
principle and to study Einstein's theory right from the beginning". That
blinded relativist Professor Friedrich W. Hehl (University of Koeln),
co-editor of Annalen der Physik failed to realize that my paper is only
the new application of the classical Newton theory of gravitation. My
paper is indeed the true finishing - completion of that fundamental
theory of physics, so to include magnetism. My paper has nothing to do
with the Schuster - Blackett "effect". That dogmatic relativist
Professor Hehl forgets that Einstein himself claimed that his general
theory of relativity reduces to the classical Newton theory of
gravitation for velocities well below the speed of light, and certainly
for the static case, and my paper deals essentially with the problem of
statics. Professor Hehl might profit to take a refresher introductory
sophomore course of the classical Newtonian mechanics, including
statics, which he has obviously forgotten, or may have never learned.
His statement, dismissing the classical Newton theory of gravitation
almost disparagingly, is the evidence of his dogmatism and his total
ignorance of the foundations of modern physics. He is one of the
"specialists", or the "learned ignoramuses" as Jose Ortega y Gasset
called them in his famous book "The Revolt of the Masses", who prevented
the publication of my ideas for over 40 (forty) years. The BBC can help
to overcome such blind and arrogant dogmatism, which prevents the
progress of science as the history abundantly shows. My paper is the
glorification of the great work of the spiritually immortal Sir Isaac
Newton, the founder of modern physics.
My second wish-dream is to see the true publication of my paper
"UNIFICATION OF GRAVITATION AND ELECTROMAGNETISM", which represents my
unified field theory, i.e., the true unification of the grandiose works
of Newton, Faraday and Maxwell. The essential part of my unified field
theory was first outlined in my short essay, which was awarded the fifth
prize in 1963 by the Gravity Research Foundation in New Boston, New
Hampshire, USA in the 1963 International Competition of Essays on
Gravity, but refused to be published by all physics journals without any
opinion, presumably for reason that my ideas contradict the relativity
theories and the dogmatic belief about the four basic forces of nature
(sic!), which so strangely resembles to Aristotle's four elements. The
history of my attempts to publish my ideas for the past 40 (forty) years
can be found on my Internet Site: http://jovandjuric.tripod.com
My third wish-dream is, after the discussion of my truly published
ideas, to obtain sufficient funds of about 10 million US dollars to
attempt to accelerate electrons above the speed of light, which I
believe on the basis of my theory that it is possible, in spite of the
dogmatic belief that it is impossible, so that the mankind can try one
day "to reach the unreachable stars" as the Man of LA Mancha dreamed.
Without the dreams, the new ideas and the struggles, the mankind would
still believe in the four elements of Aristotle and that the Earth is
the center of the Universe, we would not have air transport, since it
was even "proved" that the flight of objects heavier than air was
impossible, but the Wright brothers did not listen and did it anyway,
thus fulfilling the ancient dream of Daedalus and his son Icarus, their
dream flamed up by "loci natalis amore", the superb supersonic CONCORDE,
which just flew into the history by being grounded, would not have been
built, etc., etc. "When one wishes upon the stars, no wish is too
extreme". My dreams and ideas are drawn from the great works of the
three truly great and spiritually immortal men Newton, Faraday and
Maxwell. But Einstein must be excluded, since, among the others, Dr. L.
Essen, Fellow of the Royal Society of Great Britain in The Proceedings
of the Royal Institution of Great Britain, volume 45, pp. 141-160, 1972
showed clearly that "the relativity theory is readily demolished by the
application of a little reason", and the Boomerang Project, which was
published in NATURE and elsewhere, including the BBC Homepage on April
26, 2000, demolished the general theory of relativity by proving
experimentally that the Universe is not curved and that the beams of
light are not deflected by gravity as the general theory of relativity
erroneously asserts. The words from the BBC Homepage of the BBC's
Christine McGourty are quoted: "The Universe is flat and will probably
expand forever". And the Voyager just flew into that infinite Universe!
Further, the gravitational waves, which were predicted by the general
theory of relativity, were never detected so far, in spite of the very
extensive and the very expensive search for those waves for nearly a
century. Such separate gravitational waves do not exist in nature
according to my unified field theory. And also, the general theory of
relativity postulated ad hoc a constant to be the antigravity, which is
an extreme violation of logic, while in my unified field theory, the
antigravity occurs naturally in connection with the modified Newton law
of gravitation in certain situations of the moving masses.
So, the staff members of the BBC, PLEASE help me to try TOGETHER to
realize the dreams of the entire mankind to reach the unreachable stars
by making the first step to accelerate electrons above the speed of
light. There is nothing that we can lose in such an attempt, except our
ignorance and our dogmatic bigotry. But we could perhaps reach the
stars. Per ardua et aspera ad astra!
Jovan Djuric, a BBC listener since 1939, a naturalized US citizen, a
Serb by birth and a retired former Professor of Electrical Engineering
and Computer Science at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, New
P.S. For those interested, the BRIEF SUMMARIES of my two papers are
attached in the pdf format.
October 15, 2003
LETTER OF PROFESSOR HEHL, EDITOR, ANNALEN DER PHYSIK
Dear Professor Djuric,
Thank you very much for your letter. Your original paper was still with
the referee. Now I phoned the referee and sent to him/her the revised
version of your paper.
After having gone through the revised version, the referee will send me
But at the phone the referee told me already that he/she has grave
difficulties with your paper. To relate gravity/noninertial effects with
magnetism is by no means new, as the refree pointed out, see the
Balckett effect, e.g. Moreover, according to general relativity, one has
the GRAVITOelectric field that you relate with magnetism, what do you do
about the GRAVITOmagnetic field, would you relate it to electricity? In
other words, so the referee, Newton's theory of gravity is no longer a
valid starting point for developing new physical theories. One has to
take care of the relativity principle and to study then Einstein's
theory right from the beginning.
You don't need to answer these points since the referee will write them
down and then I will forward to you his/her report. I just wanted to
indicate that there seem to be strong arguments against the validity of
Friedrich W. Hehl
Co-Editor Annalen der Physik
Jovan Djuric wrote:
>> Dear Professor Hehl,
>> Six months ago on April 7, 2003 I submitted to you via e-mail my paper
>> "MAGNETISM AS MANIFESTATION OF GRAVITATION" in the PDF format for
>> possible publication in your Journal Annalen der Physik. You
>> acknowledged the receipt by your e-mail letter to me of April 11, 2003.
>> I have not heard anything from you since then.
>> In the meantime I revised my paper somewhat, by adding more facts and
>> arguments, as well as an Appendix about the necessary experiments to
>> prove that gravitational mode experimentally, or to disprove it with the
>> consequential breakdown of the classical Newtonian mechanics, which is
>> absurd from the logical point of view. I am sending you via e-mail this
>> revised version of my paper in the PDF format as the substitute for the
>> previous version. I shall appreciate to hear news from you at your
>> earliest convenience. Thank you very much.
>> Jovan Djuric
December 1, 2003
FINAL LETTER OF PROFESSOR HEHL, EDITOR, ANNALEN DER PHYSIK
Dear Professor Djuric,
In the light of the letter you sent to me (a copy of your letter to the
BBC), I am no longer considering your paper for possible publication in
the Annalen der Physik.
Co-editor Annalen der Physik
January 6, 2004
REBUTTAL OF JOVAN DJURIC TO THE EDITORIAL COLLEGIUM OF THE ANNALEN DER PHYSIK
Dear members of the Editorial Collegium of the Annalen der Physik:
I am your older and retired colleague, a former Professor of Electrical
Engineering and Computer Science at the University of new Mexico in
Albuquerque, New Mexico, U.S.A. and a naturalized U.S. citizen, a Serb
On April 7, 2003 I submitted my paper "MAGNETISM AS MANIFESTATION OF
GRAVITATION" in the pdf format to Professor F. W. Hehl, co-editor
Annalen der Physik for possible publication. Not receiving any news for
six months I sent on October 6, 2003 to Professor Hehn the revised
version of my paper in the pdf format, to which Professor Hehl responded
on October 15, 2003 with an amazing and insulting letter. Professor Hehl
wrote in that letter that "Newton's theory of gravity is no longer a
valid starting point for developing new physical theories". Adding
insult to the injury, Professor Hehl continued with an insulting advice
to me, an old professor who has devoted all life to the very meticulous
re-examination of the basic tenets of physics, that "One has to take
care of the relativity principle and to study then Einstein's theory
right from the beginning". That letter of Professor Hehl of October 15,
2003 including my letter of October 6, 2003 are attached herewith.
Since the referee and Professor Hehl were not able to find any
mathematical, logical or factual error in my paper, Professor Hehl
resorted in his said letter to me to the above cited dogmatic dismissal
of the fundamental Newton's theory of gravitation, which is essentially
the foundation of modern physics, and almost disparagingly to claim that
"there seem to be strong arguments against the validity of your paper".
That statement of Professor Hehl raises the question whether he really
knows even the general theory of relativity, since Einstein himself
claimed that the general theory of relativity reduces to the Newton
theory of gravitation for the velocities well below the speed of light,
and most certainly for the static case, and my paper is essentially a
problem of statics. My response was my letter of November 30, 2003 to
the BBC Outlook entering the competition about three wishes-dreams to be
accomplished before death, attached herewith. Professor Hehl responded
immediately as an offended boy on December 1, 2003 telling me that my
paper is no longer considered for publication without any opinion. By
the way, the winner of that BBC competition was a German doctor.
It is amazing what happened. Instead of receiving a careful, impartial
and fair opinion about my paper from my peers-colleagues, the referees
of the old and highly reputable physics journal Annalen der Physik,
presumably German scientists, who, I believed, are very methodical,
precise and fair, I received the rejection of the fundamental theory of
physics upon which my paper is indeed based together with an insulting
suggestion "to study then Einstein's theory right from the beginning"
just like an ignorant boy, just like a superior Uebermensch to an
inferior and ignorant underdog from the lower Slavic race !!!
I believe and I have no reason whatsoever for doubts, but, nevertheless,
I am always skeptical as every true scientist must be and I look forward
to discussions, hence, I believe that in my search for truth of nature
based on facts, which have been overlooked in physics for a very long
time, that I discovered a truth which is of the utmost importance for
further progress of physics, which is the interplay of the two points
within every body regardless of its size, even within the elementary
particles. These two points are the center of self gravity and the
center of mass. With these two points correctly used, and the origin of
the coordinate system correctly chosen to coincide with the planet's
center of self gravity, it is possible to show that the planetary
magnetism is strictly the manifestation of gravitation, i.e., planetary
magnetism is strictly and logically a part of the somewhat widened
Newton theory of gravitation. That is in a nutshell the content of my
paper. That logic of those two points should and must be carried into
the microcosm with conclusions which may be very important for further
progress of physics. The discussion after the publication of my paper
may be of interest for better understanding of this issue.
Every scientific journal, including the Annalen der Physik, is
established with one SINGLE GOAL, which IS THE RELENTLESS AND
UNCOMPROMISING SEARCH FOR TRUTH. The publication of a paper in a journal
is not at all the recognition of that paper as true and correct, but it
does mean that the referees could not find any error in that paper and
that its content is interesting for further discussion by the entire
scientific community in search for truth. The rejection of a paper only
on some dogmatic grounds without finding any error in the rejected paper
is the attempt for the censorship which is the gravest enemy of truth.
THE RELATIVISTS, like Professor Hehl, BY INSISTING THAT EVERYTHING MUST
START FROM THE RELATIVITY THEORY "right from the beginning" AND THAT
"Newton's theory of gravity is no longer a valid starting point for
developing new physical theories", FOLLOW OBVIOUSLY THE IDENTICAL
INFAMOUS POLICY OF THE INQUISITION OF THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, WHICH
PROHIBITED ANY DISCUSSION OF THE HELIOCENTRIC THEORY AS HERESY 4(FOUR)
I am saddened to have to state that the above described events about my
paper "MAGNETISM AS MANIFESTATION OF GRAVITATION" have degraded and
belittled the reputation of the German culture in general and of the
Annalen der Physik in particular. Having in mind the importance of the
discovery which I have made in my paper, which is so simple to be almost
unbelievable and expressed in the mathematical form which must be
understood by every physicist who should and must have passed a
comprehensive second year university course of the classical Newtonian
mechanics, I take the liberty to ask you, the Members of the Editorial
Collegium of the Annalen der Physik, to reconsider my paper for
publication in the interest of the search for truth and the progress of
physics, and so to close this unpleasant episode as another chapter of
the never ending struggle for truth. My paper "MAGNETISM AS
MANIFESTATION OF GRAVITATION" in the pdf format is attached herewith for
Thank you very much for your attention to this matter and your courtesy.
NO RESPONSE WAS RECEIVED
March 29, 2005
SAGA OF THE PAPER "MAGNETISM AS MANIFESTATION OF GRAVITATION"
For your information, please find below the POSTSCRIPT dated March 29, 2005 to my letter dated September 22, 2004 to the President of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. At the end, my letter dated September 22, 2004 to the President of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences is also enclosed, together with the final version of my paper "MAGNETISM AS MANIFESTATION OF GRAVITATION" in the PDF format.
To: Journal of Theoretics Editorial Department <email@example.com>,
Nobel Foundation <firstname.lastname@example.org>,
"Oquist, Gunnar" <email@example.com>,
Cultural attache Swedish Embassy Belgrade <firstname.lastname@example.org>,
President of The Royal Society <email@example.com>,
"Fond. L. de Broglie (Dominique Morenas)" <firstname.lastname@example.org>,
"Professor Richard H. Williams" <email@example.com>,
Gary Vaughn <GVaughn@worldnet.att.net>,
Dragan Tabakovic <Dtabakovic@aol.com>, Milan Bozic <firstname.lastname@example.org>,
Slobodanka Jankovic <email@example.com>
POSTSCRIPT dated March 29, 2005 to my letter dated September 22, 2004 to the President of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Truth, scientific or any other, liberates, but often offends, hurts and even destroys the established orders and reputations. The history of humanity is a never ending story of the suppressions of truths by all means by those in power, who are corrupted by power and want desperately to stay in power. True wisdom of life is not to tell the whole truth sometimes, as the example of Galileo shows clearly. But wisdom, which often includes compromises, and even untruths, i.e. lies, must be absolutely excluded from science which is a search for uncompromising truth. Of course, with the increasing knowledge of facts, what at one moment appears to be truth, may turn out not to be truth after all. And that makes the progress of science possible. The moral - lesson is that no truth in science, and life generally, should be considered as absolute, but always subject to the re-examinations. By the way, this is the true justification for the abolition of the death penalty.
It is with sadness to report that the President of The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, with obvious arrogance of power, bigotry, and contrary to the normal civilized manners, ignored the here enclosed letter, never acknowledging its receipt, thus accepting as correct the obviously incompetent, erroneous and prejudiced report of the referee for the Physica Scripta, thus rejecting my paper once more by denying the re-submission of my paper. But the Annalen der Physik proclaimed the entire classical Newton's theory of gravitation as not valid in order to reject my paper! The ways and means of the Physica Scripta and the Annalen der Physik for the rejection of my paper are so wildly different, that one wonders whether the same paper was considered. But there is one common feature in those rejections. The Physica Scripta wants to protect the dynamo theory of the origin of the Earth's magnetic field, while the Annalen der Physik wants to protect the general theory of relativity, both against a competing theory as exposed in my paper. But the really good theories and ideas never need any protections. And the competition of the ideas naturally leads to the increased chance to discover real truth, just like the competition between the manufacturers leads naturally to the improved and better product, with which both The Physica Scripta and the Annalen der Physik must agree. However, the prevention of a competing theory from publication is obviously the best way to stay in power with the established theories, as it appears to be the only goal of the Physica Scripta and the Annalen der Physik, rather than search for truth. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, which publishes the Physica Scripta together with some other institutions, has betrayed dismally in this case the noble ideal of the late Alfred Bernhard Nobel and his Nobel Foundation to assist the advancement of science. But too many editors followed that same way. What a wretched present condition of the international scientific community in which the scientists are more interested in reputations and power politics, rather than in the search for truth! The Royal Society of The United Kingdom, whose most famous member was Sir Isaac Newton, refused to review the somewhat widened theory of Newton as presented in my paper, which glorifies Newton's theory, and The Royal Society was informed that the Annalen der Physik proclaimed Newton's theory as no longer valid.
The entire humanity abhors undoubtedly and condemns absolutely the suppressions of ideas and truths and other crimes done in the past by the Inquisition of the Roman Catholic Church, the German nazi regime, the communist regimes and other tyrannical empires. But the bigoted editors of the scientific journals and their anonymous bigoted referees are doing now almost the same thing by preventing the publications of the competing ideas and theories in order to protect the status quo and the established order. The bigoted editors of the Physica Scripta and the Annalen der Physik have prevented the publication of the new idea in my paper on the basis of the obviously incompetent and wrong reports as stated above. The bigoted editors and / or officials of the following journals and / or institutions have rejected my paper without any arguments or reports whatsoever, politically stating only that my paper is not suitable for the publication in their journals, some almost immediately and some even after a considerable time of over nine months:
1. Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, 2. The Royal Society of the United Kingdom,
3. Proceedings A: of the Royal Society of the United Kingdom, 4. American Journal of Physics,
5. Annales Henri Poincare, 6. Annals of Physics, 7. Journal of Physics A,
8. Astronomy & Geophysics, 9. Classical & Quantum Gravity,
10. Journal of Mathematical Physics, 11. Physics Education, 12. Journal of the Franklin Institute,
13. Journal of Applied Physics, 14. Physical Review, 15. Physics Essays, 16. Progress of Physics,
17. Science, 18. Scientific American, 19. Annales de la Foundation Louis de Broglie
The only somewhat brighter side in the saga of my paper during the past three years is the Editorial Department of the Journal of Theoretics, which on October 2, 2003, after only twelve days from the submission of my paper, e-mailed that they had "a cursory review of your (my) paper and it looks fine", but they cannot publish it due to its length, its scope, cost and "we have our issues booked out for over a year". The Editorial Department of the Journal of Theoretics offered to put my paper "MAGNETISM AS MANIFESTATION OF GRAVITATION" "with a few touch-ups and no significant editing in our Extensive Papers Section. We convert the article to PDF". My consent was asked, which I never sent, but only after a few days on October 13, 2003 I was informed that "Your (my) article is now online in our Extensive Papers Section at http://www.journaloftheoretics.com/Links/Papers/JD.pdf". My paper is still there, but unfortunately, due to some errors in converting to PDF, the arrows on the vectors appear as letters. But my paper is understandable in that form. It is an early version of my paper.
This is the true story of my paper "MAGNETISM AS MANIFESTATION OF GRAVITATION" for the past 3 (three) years. It appears that the present-day bigoted editors by suppressing the publications of new ideas have returned some 400 (four hundred) years back, except that the "maladaptive men" of today, who think differently, are no longer burned at the stake, but rather "mercifully" retired from the profession by suppressing the publication of their "crazy" ideas. Some details of my wishes and / or plans can be found on my Internet site http://jovandjuric.tripod.com . I would like to accelerate electrons above the speed of light and to prove experimentally that the magnetism is a manifestation of gravitation. That may appear as crazy to some, but that is what I see in my mind as possible, and nobody so far has given me any logical argument against. These ideas should be tried experimentally, but those in power at the present time do not allow, preferring status quo.
Signed, Jovan Djuric
Dear President of The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences,
I am a naturalized U.S. citizen, a Serb by birth and a retired, former professor, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131, U.S.A., where is my legal domicile.
On September 23, 2002, almost two years ago, I submitted electronically my paper entitled "MAGNETISM AS MANIFESTATION OF GRAVITATION" to the Physica Scripta, which is published by your Academy. On April 4, 2003, after over six months, my paper Ms 839 was rejected by the Editor Dr. Roger Waeppling, who enclosed a single Report of the referee which begins as follows quoted verbatim :
"I have not gone into all the mathematical details presented in this manuscript, because I think that the fundamental assumptions used are completely erroneous." The referee further quotes some well-known facts praising the dynamo theory of the origin of the Earth's magnetic field and ignoring all facts and arguments in my paper, and never stating which "fundamental assumptions used are completely erroneous". It is strange that the Editor Dr. Waeppling accepted this obviously biased and inadequate Report, in which the referee explicitly declines to consider my paper. The mathematical details, which referee refused to consider, are rather elementary at the level of the second year University course of the classical Newtonian mechanics, which raises the question whether that referee is really an expert who knows quite well the classical mechanics to be able to consider my paper which is the strict application of the classical Newtonian mechanics, or, perhaps, that referee is only a narrow specialist on the dynamo theory of the origin of the Earth's magnetic field. The entire report is enclosed at the end of this letter.
I did not respond to Dr. Waeppling about that obviously inadequate and extremely biased report, since I submitted my paper immediately to the Annalen der Physik believing that this is better than to argue with that referee. To my great surprise, on October 15, 2003, after over six months, I received a letter from the co-editor of the Annalen der Physik Professor F. W. Hehl telling me that "Newton's theory of gravity is no longer a valid starting point for developing new physical theories. One has to take care of the relativity principle and to study then Einstein's theory right from the beginning". This is an amazingly dogmatic utterance, absurd, anti-scientific and absolutely wrong! The classical Newtonian mechanics is undoubtedly the foundation of our entire modern civilization and science. I responded to Professor Hehl emphasizing that Einstein himself stated repeatedly that his general theory of relativity must give the exactly identical results as the classical Newtonian mechanics for the low velocities, and also certainly for the static case as analyzed in my paper. But my paper was rejected without any further report or opinion. These are the only two opinions about my paper which I received so far.
You see that the referee of the Physica Scripta was biased in favor of the dynamo theory of the origin of the Earth's magnetic field, while the Annalen der Physik was biased in favor of the general theory of relativity, and they rejected my paper without really considering it, which is anti-scientific. A scientific theory, to quote Professor Sir Herman Bondi, must live a dangerous life in order to be a scientific theory. Only a dogma is unchangeable and absolute. My paper connects the Earth's magnetic field with gravitation by the strict application of the rules and the law of the classical Newtonian mechanics, and also connects the Earth's climatic variation with the Earth's magnetic field among many other facts. I believe that it should be published in the interest of the understanding of nature and the search of truth, not wisdom as Dr. Waepling's referee imputes to me in his Report, but wrongly. Wisdom is a matter of politics and science is only a search of truth and relationships between the various physical facts. And I am only a scientist, very far from a politician.
To complete the story, then my paper was submitted to many various physics journals only to be rejected without any opinion or report whatsoever telling me that my paper is not suitable for their journal. Finally, my paper was recently submitted to the Proceedings A of The Royal Society of the United Kingdom. I expected that The Royal Society whose most famous member was Newton, will give me at least a thorough report, but I received very recently the letter from Dr. T. Holt on behalf of the Editor, telling me that my paper was rejected without any report. Dr. Holt expressed his hope in his letter that my paper will be published somewhere else. I believe that the ardent relativists at The Royal Society managed to suppress publication of my paper without any report, which shows that politics has entered science, which is deplorable.
I know that the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, which selects the Nobel Prize winners for physics, chemistry and economy, did not award Albert Einstein for the theory of relativity, since in the citation for his Nobel Prize in 1921, the theory of relativity is not mentioned. My paper adheres strictly to the classical Newtonian mechanics and widens somewhat Newton's theory of gravitation connecting geomagnetism with gravitation and many other facts by using the geophysical coordinate system with the origin at the center of self-gravity of the Earth, not the center of mass of the Earth as used so far. To my surprise, my paper was met apparently with so much intolerance so far that it is amazing and resembles the hostility towards the heliocentric theory by the Inquisition of the Catholic Church.
I believe that your Academy is the only institution which may dare to publish my ideas which I consider as my contribution to science. In view of that, I take the liberty to send you herewith the PDF format of the latest version of my paper as my submission via your Office for possible publication in the Physica Scripta or any other publication of your Academy. I apologize for bothering you, but I feel very strongly that the publication of my paper is in the best interest of the further advance of science. I need its publication in order to perform some experiments for which I need assistance.
Thank you very much for your attention to this letter and your cooperation.
Telephone +381 11 682615
Enclosed : Report of the referee
March 28, 2003
RE: Ms. No 839 Magnetism as manifestation of gravitation
I have not gone into all the mathematical details presented in this manuscript, because I think that the fundamental assumptions used are completely erroneous.
>From a mathematical point of view the well-known Poisson's relations state that the magnetic field from a given distribution of magnetization is proportional to some derivative of the gravity field from a density distribution which itself is proportional to the magnetization distribution. This relation has found useful applications in the implementation of algorithms used for forward and inverse modelling of potential fields.
This mathematical rule should not be taken to imply that in the earth - or the planets for that matter - that the magnetization and density distributions are proportional. As a matter of fact it is well known that the ferro/ferri magnetic properties vanish at the Curie temperature, above which the paramagnetic magnetization, possibly reduced by any external field, decreases according to Curie-Weiss' law (proportional to 1/T). For the Earth it means that basically only the upper 40-50 km of the Earth's lithosphere can contain magnetization.
The Earth's magnetic field and its behaviour with time is now generally understood as an action of the so-called geodynamo. As a matter of fact over the past 10 years or so much progress has been made in simulating the geodynamo using simplified, yet realistic models for complicated magneto-hydro-dynamic interactions that keep the dynamo going.
In equation 12 the number of terms depends on the where you truncate the series expansion, i.e. if you use the first or second order approximations. You cannot say that one has a physical meaning and the other not.
Generally, changing the origin of the coordinate system from the mass centre (or dipole centre) will change the terms in the spherical harmonic expansion. This is because these terms are required mathematically to describe the physical field, but it does not change the physical source. For example consider the simple form of the field of a dipole. If the origin is at the dipole only the dipole term is needed. If you displace the origin a small distance away from the dipole, multi-pole terms appear in the mathematical representation, but the physical source is still the same simple dipole. (The same is true for gravity versus centre of mass).
I am afraid that the author has followed a wrong track in his search for wisdom. Mathematical trickery is necessary but not sufficient tool for finding the right way. The manuscript should thus be rejected for publication.
August 13, 2005
ADDENDA to SAGA OF THE PAPER "MAGNETISM AS MANIFESTATION OF GRAVITATION"
Few spotted typographical errors in the above writings have been corrected today, and this opportunity is used to add to this SAGA some further facts and consequences of this paper. Namely, my said paper was submitted on June 17, 2004 to the Annales de la Foundation Louis de Broglie, and its receipt was acknowledged by the Editor, who never sent so far any report or decision about this paper, although that Editor has duly received this SAGA on March 29, 2005. It appears that the disclosure of the error in the very foundation of physics in this paper "MAGNETISM AS MANIFESTATION OF GRAVITATION", namely the erroneous choice of the center of mass of the Earth as the origin of the geophysical coordinate system, which is apparently used erroneously for the past three centuries, instead of the correct choice of the center of self gravity of the Earth as the proper origin of the proper geophysical coordinate system, that disclosure of that error is apparently received by the editors and the present physics establishment as an offense which hurts their pride and vanity, and threatens their reputations, positions and money. As a consequence, those bigoted editors have abandoned even the normal civilized behavior to respond promptly on time with the civilized reports about the submitted paper. My said paper bears some resemblance formally to the heliocentric theory of Mikolaj Kopernik, since in the both cases, Kopernik's theory and my theory, the simple shift of the coordinate origin from one point to another point is of the paramount importance and leads to the proper coordinate system, which itself leads to truth. The extreme hostility towards the Kopernikan revolution, as Immanuel Kant dubbed (named) it, is well-known in the history of humanity over four centuries ago. My paper "MAGNETISM AS MANIFESTATION OF GRAVITATION" is met now in the 21st century with the apparently identical psychopathic hostility by the present physics establishment. It is amazing, but it appears that the history almost repeats itself in this case. WHAT A WRETCHED PSYCHOPATHIC PRESENT CONDITION OF THE INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY, IN WHICH THE SCIENTISTS - PHYSICISTS ARE MORE INTERESTED IN POWER POLITICS, THEIR REPUTATIONS AND ENORMOUS MONEY FOR THEIR DUBIOUS AND QUESTIONABLE RESEARCH CONTRACTS, RATHER THAN IN THE SEARCH FOR TRUTH!
In order to recapitulate, it must be emphasized that there are many consequences of the mathematical - gravitational model as developed in this paper "MAGNETISM AS MANIFESTATION OF GRAVITATION", which, in fact, is the logical widening and completion of the classical Newton's theory of gravitation. The obvious feedback between the planets and the Sun, modifying mutually even their forms to some extent, which was introduced by this author in his papers for the first time in physics, and which results in the Sun's mass dipolar moment, i.e., the solar magnetic dipole almost normal to the Sun's axis of rotation, is very important for the re-examination of the solar-planetary system as it controls the sunspot cycles mainly by the action of the planet Jupiter. That Sun's mass dipolar moment is very probably the real cause of the long time ago observed precession of the perihelion of the planet Mercury and probably other planets closer to the Sun, but to a lesser extent. Also, if this widened Newton's theory of gravitation is proved correct by the experiments proposed in this paper, which is practically the experimental certainty, then the general theory of relativity becomes unnecessary, irrelevant and logically absurd, besides being already seriously demolished by the BOOMERANG PROJECT and the futile but very expensive search for the non-existing "gravitational waves" for almost a century. Also, the logically absurd concept of quarks, for whose research the Nobel Prize was awarded recently, becomes totally unnecessary, irrelevant and must be abandoned. And the theory of the elementary particles must be thoroughly re-examined. And the fact that this model identifies magnetism as manifestation of gravitation may prove to be very important in further research for CONTROLLING FUSION. Also, this model offers the logical and convincing explanation of the ability of some animal species to detect the conventional Earth's magnetic field, i.e., the dipolar portion of the Earth's gravitational field according to this model. This model also completely resolves the perennial enigma of the "elusive magnetic monopoles", which turn out to be the ubiquitous mass monopoles. And this model connects the climatic variations of the Earth with the variations of the intensity of the Earth's magnetic field. And, lastly, as mentioned in my paper, the dynamo theory of the origin of the Earth's magnetic field is absolutely inadequate to explain some facts, besides being, as many researchers pointed out, in violation of the fundamental principle of physics that heat cannot be transformed directly into any other form of energy, and as such, it should be abandoned per se. That theory is an instructive example of the illogical and useless mathematical trickery.
Thus, it appears that all these consequences, which are easily perceived from this paper, are probably the real reasons why the power holders in the present physics establishment want to suppress the publication of my paper "MAGNETISM AS MANIFESTATION OF GRAVITATION" without any discussions and reports, and thus to prevent the crucial experiments as proposed in this paper. So, it appears, that the arrogant dogmatists, possibly psychopaths, and / or the arrogant "learned ignoramuses", as the distinguished Spanish philosopher, the late Jose Ortega y Gasset called such narrow specialists, rule supremely the present establishment of physics, suppressing totally the search for any truth which may threaten their power even in the slightest form. What a pity! What a shame!
Signed, Jovan Djuric
See also "MAGNETISM AS MANIFESTATION OF GRAVITATION" in PDF format
by Jovan Djuric, Balkanska 28 , 11000 Belgrade , Serbia , Yugoslavia
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